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19.09.2015
Average percentage weight loss (APWL) and corrosion rate (CR) were determined for mild steel (MS), carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS) strip coupons buried in a water-logged soil (WL) and a sandy soil (SD)for a period of 190 days. With regards to biological activity and soil corrosion, reference [3] reported that incorporation of biocide in soil brought about a reduction in the numbers of bacteria present in the soil and subsequently, a reduction in the biocorrosion activity around and on steel coupons buried in the soil. The study of the soil as a corrosive environment is necessary due to the large number of buried pipelines and tanks, as their deterioration can appear to be a real economic and environmental problem through the years [6].
Corrosion reactions are electrochemical in nature and involve two types of reaction: anodic and cathodic. Corrosion rate was calculated assuming uniform corrosion over the entire surface of the coupons. The results showed that generally, weight loss increased over time while corrosion rate decreased.
These results showed a general pattern of increase in average percentage weight loss (APWL) and a corresponding decrease in corrosion rate (CR) in the coupons, with respect to time. Comparatively, weight loss and corrosion rates were more in the water-logged soil than in the sandy soil site.
Comparing the APWL and CR trends in the MS and CS coupons showed that it was a near 1:1 ratio between increase in APWL and decrease in CR. AppreciationThe authors acknowledge and thank Nalco Champion and Keedak Nigeria Limited for their support towards this study. With the New Year upon us, millions of people are thinking hard about their New Year’s resolutions, many of which will likely include ambitious nutrition and fitness goals. Desired body weight = how much you will weigh when you achieve your desired body fat percentage. Natalie Digate Muth, MD, MPH, RD, is a registered dietitian and recent graduate of the UNC School of Medicine. Natalie Digate Muth ContributorNatalie Digate Muth, MD, MPH, RD, is the ACE senior consultant for healthcare solutions, a practicing pediatrician and registered dietitian. If you found this to be article useful to you or someone else, please share it with your friends! Summer is just around the corner, which means now is the time to start getting in shape for it. With the government's recommendation to get in 10,000 steps per day, can we all realistically accomplish this daily step goal? Sign up to receive relevant, science-based health and fitness information and other resources.
There is always a chance that pipelines could leak or rupture leading to hazardous failure which can inflict human fatality and also badly damage the environment and assets due to explosion and leakage [Pipeline Technology.
Reference [10],in studying corrosion of stainless steel-304 in a brackish water environment, used weight loss analysis as well as open circuit polarization to determine corrosion in the steel.
The anode is the part of the metal surface that corrodes - that is, the metal dissolves in the electrolyte.
The simplest way of measuring the corrosion rate of a metal is to expose the sample to the test medium (e.g. Coupon Specimen and PreparationMetal coupons of three metallurgies were used for the study.
Weight Loss and Corrosion Rate DeterminationThe metal coupons were buried in the soil environments for a maximum of 190 days.
They were then cleaned with inhibited acid (15% HCl) to remove corrosion products on the surface of the coupons according to ASTM G1 (Standard Practice for Preparing, Cleaning, and Evaluating Corrosion Test Specimens). Results and DiscussionUpon retrieval of the coupons after each burial period of 40, 100 and 190 days, the coupons were cleaned and analyzed to determine the metal loss and subsequently, the corrosion rate. Here we see the decreasing CR trend only consistent in the sandy soil samples but not in the water-logged sample. An inverse proportional trend seems to exist between the weight loss and corrosion rate over time. This means that CR decreased in the MS and CS coupons by nearly the same margin of the corresponding APWL increases. Mild steel and carbon steel are close alloys, differing only slightly in their carbon contents.


ConclusionAs steel undergoes corrosion in a soil environment, there tends to be an inverse relationship in the weight loss and corrosion rate trends in the exposed steel. She is an ACE-certified Personal Trainer and Group Fitness Instructor, and holds additional certifications with the American College of Sports Medicine and the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Recognized as a Certified Obesity Specialist, Natalie has written for more than 50 publications and, in 2012, published her first book, Eat Your Vegetables! The corrosiveness of soil can be defined as the capacity of producing and developing the corrosion phenomenon. In the Proceedings of the 2nd International Pipeline Technology Conference, (PTC’96), Amsterdam, pp: 683-706. Similarly, reference [11], used average percent weight losses to determine corrosion of the coupons exposed to Bacilluscereus-SNB4 in wet and nutrient broth impregnated soils.
Site SelectionTwo soil sites were selected for this study – a water-logged soil site and a sandy soil site. They are: mild steel (MS) coupons, carbon steel (CS) coupons and stainless steel (SS) coupons. On days 40 and 100, duplicate sets of the buried coupons were retrieved for analysis and the last set of coupons was retrieved on the last day of exposure (190 days). Data on the weights of duplicate sets of all the coupons before and after analysis are shown on Tables 1 and 2 for the water-logged soil and sandy soil, respectively.
In a another study, polarization resistant (PR) measurement of corrosion rates found that the PR technique overestimated corrosion rates but predicted a decrease in corrosion rate over time [15]. Here, we see a near-similar increasing pattern as noted earlier, except for the dips on day 100 at both sites (Figure 6).
Expectedly, here we see the decreasing pattern of CR with respect to exposure days, with only an exception in the sandy soil on day 190 (Figure 7). The water-logged soil had a moisture content of 104% while the sandy soil had just 20% moisture.
Reference [18] found that the percentage of weight loss of mild steel in seawater increased as immersion period increased. Mild steels (low-carbon steels) have less than 0.30 percent carbon and are the most commonly used grades. While weight loss tends to increase over time, the highest being at the time that the corrosion process is initiated, corrosion rate tends to decrease simultaneously. She has made several appearances as a nutrition expert on CW's San Diego 6, been quoted as a fitness expert in the New York Times and other newspapers and is an ACE Master Trainer and award-winning author.
It will take a more conscious effort to do this if you live in a more rural or suburban area but it can be done. Yoga classes typically combine stretching and poses with breathing techniques, and serve as a wonderful way for people to de-stress and move their bodies. Reference [1] defined soil-corrosion as the deterioration of metal or other materials brought about by chemical, mechanical and biological action by soil environment.
They found that there were reductions in weights in the coupons after the observational period.
Relative to metal density, exposed surface area, duration of exposure and some constant, the rate of corrosion of metal can be determined.
The water-logged site was in a swampy location and the soil was clay, characteristically wet, smooth, and greyish-black in colour and contained silt and other debris. Interval monitoring of the buried coupons was to determine what corrosion effect had taken place on the coupons at the end of each observational period and to compare the effect of time on the rates of corrosion on the three coupon types in the two different soil environments under study. The average percentage weight loss and corrosion rate data are shown on Tables 3 and 4, respectively. These studies confirm our findings about corrosion rates in the steel coupons in this study. Here, we see a reversed trend – decrease in the CRs – at both sites, with respect to days of exposure.
According to reference [16], the corrosivity of soils towards mild steel, in general, has been found to be at maximum at 65% moisture content of their water holding capacity, which may be termed as “Critical Soil Moisture Content.” Corrosion of mild steel in a soil becomes appreciable only when the soil moisture content ? 50% of its water holding capacity. Investigating further, they established that corrosion current density (icorr), which increased at early immersion period, decreased as immersion period increased.


After retrieval from the soil sites (Figure 1.), the coupons were taken to the laboratory for cleaning and analyses to determine the weight loss and corrosion rates. After drying, they were placed in a desiccator to cool after which they were weighed to a constant weight using a Mettle Toledo weighing balance (New Classic ML 204, Switzerland).
In a study to compare corrosion rates based on various electrode probe systems, reference [19], noted that corrosion rates measured by four different electrode systems show that the corrosion rates follow the order: linear polarization resistance>weak polarization> electrochemical impedance spectroscopy>coupon. It was observed that generally, there was an inverse trend between weight loss and corrosion rates in the coupons as the exposure period increased such that, while APWL values were seen to be increasing, CR values were decreasing. There was no pre-treatment of the coupons before exposure to the soil sites as they were received in good condition and were in adequately sealed envelopes as delivered by the manufacturers. Being in soil environments, the retrieved coupons did not have any oil residues on them but as expected, they were found to be covered with soil debris when they were recovered. The weight of the retrieved coupons before cleaning was compared to the initial weight, the difference indicating the metal loss during the exposure period. They reported that the rates showed a consistent variation in trend when compared with the weight?loss coupon and show that the corrosion rate decreases with the immersion time. Increased carbon means increased hardness and tensile strength, decreased ductility, and more difficult machining [21]. This trend was observed in all three coupons and at both sites, except for a few excursions which did not significantly affect the established trend. Average and instantaneous corrosion rates in Q235 steel coupons buried in soils with different moisture content showed corrosion rate more in soil with 26% moisture than in soil with 12% moisture [2]. Before use, the coupons were carefully taken out from the sealed envelopes and buried in duplicates in the water-logged and sandy soil sites at a depth of 30 cm. The corresponding average percentage weight loss (APWL) and corrosion rate (CR) were calculated. Some researchers have reported corrosion rates by electrochemical methods being close to weight loss measurements in water samples. The close carbon content of these steel types probably explains why the APWL and CR values were close. It was observed that APWL increased by nearly the same ratio that CR decreased during the period of exposure of the coupons.
The duration of exposure of steel to corrosive soil environment is also a factor in the rate of corrosion noticed in the exposed steel. The electrons generated as the iron dissolves at the anode travel through the metal to the cathodic surface area.
To give some perspective, most heat exchangers tubes are 0.10 inches thick so, a corrosion rate of 10 mpy will only take 10 years to penetrate the tube walls [13].
Comparing corrosivities of two soil types on three metallurgies under similar conditions provides some novelty to this research.
Reference [20] reported corrosion rate calculated by means of electrochemical methods is close to but slightly higher than when it is calculated by loss in weight. There are two primary reactions possible at the cathode, the “hydrogen evolution reaction” and the “oxygen absorption reaction.” Other reactions are possible but are encountered less often. During the study, the metal coupons were buried in the soils to a depth of 30 cm for a maximum 190 days. They found that corrosion rate of low carbon steel is nearly four times higher in the 3.5% NaCl solution than in the natural seawater. In the hydrogen evolution reaction, the electrons combine on the surface of the metals with hydrogen ions in the electrolyte to form hydrogen molecules, which escape as gas bubbles.
This consumption of electrons is called a reduction reaction and is as follows: 2H++ 2e- > H2 [12].



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