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When a person consumes more calories than the energy they use, the body stores the extra calories in fat cells (lipocytes).
When energy input is equal to energy output, there is no expansion of fat cells (lipocytes) to accommodate excess. A person's disease risk factors and their BMI may be the most important components in determining health risks with weight. These guidelines are very important for people at risk for diabetes, heart disease, or certain cancers.
For example, a woman who weighs 150 pounds and is 5 feet 8 inches (or 68 inches) tall has a BMI of 22.8. Women whose waistlines are over 31.5 inches and men whose waists measure over 37 inches should watch their weight. A waist size greater than 35 inches in women and 40 inches in men is associated with a higher risk for heart disease, diabetes, and impaired health. Evidence strongly suggests that more body fat around the abdomen and hips (the apple-shape) is a more consistent predictor of heart problems and health risks than BMI.
About 90% of people who lose weight through dieting gain every pound back regardless of their weight-loss method.
Appetite is determined by processes that occur both in the brain and gastrointestinal tract. The body produces a number of molecules that increases or decreases appetite, including leptin. Genetics may directly contribute to severe obesity in people with family histories of the problem. Large epidemiological studies have not been able to identify specific location on chromosomes related to the regulation of BMI or the occurrence of obesity. Environmental factors were less influential in older children, but interacted significantly with genetic factors in younger children. A number of medical conditions may contribute to being overweight, but rarely are they a primary cause of obesity. Very rare genetic disorders, including Froehlich syndrome in boys, Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome, and Prader-Willi syndrome, cause obesity.
Perhaps the primary reason for the dramatic rise in obesity is the sedentary (inactive) lives led by most Americans, including children and young people. People are not only eating more food than they did 20 years ago but also replacing home cooking with packaged foods, fast food, and dining out. Frequent small, healthy meals (instead of two or three large daily meals) have been associated with lower weights. Enough food is produced in the US to supply 3,800 calories every day to each man, woman, and child in the country.
Obesity is dramatically increasing in not only American children and adults but also every country that has adopted similar cultural habits. According to the latest figures available, 32.2% of American adults (aged 20 and older) are obese (BMI over 30) -- up from about 23% in the early 1990s. These findings are significant because they may allow women to target high-risk times, and consequently prevent unnecessary weight gain. Children and adolescents are considered to be overweight if their BMI is above 95% of the children in their age and sex categories. Sugar, particularly from soda, other sweetened beverages, and fruit juice, may be the major contributor to childhood obesity. Less physical exercise and greater sedentary activities play another significant role in obesity in children.
Neither the media nor the educational system has strong well-financed programs that encourage healthy alternatives, including exercise and healthy foods. Although some small studies have reported protection against obesity from breastfeeding, evidence is weak. After adolescence, fat cells tend to increase in mass rather than quantity, so that adults who overeat and gain weight tend to have larger fat cells, not more of them. The lowest risks for heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers are in people with BMI values of 21 - 25.
Anyone with chronic health problems, such as heart or lung disease, stroke, or arthritis, should be concerned about extra weight. Weight gain in the area around the waist (apple type) is more dangerous than weight gained around the hips and flank area (pear type).
The risk for developing diabetes, gallstones, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and various cancers seems to rise according to how much the individuals are overweight. Some argue, in fact, that unhealthy diet and sedentary lifestyle cause the harm -- not weight per se -- in anyone who is not severely obese.
Individuals with a BMI of at least 30 have a 10 - 50% increased rate of death from all causes, compared with individuals with a BMI of 20 - 25. As mentioned above, weight concentrated around the abdomen and in the upper part of the body (apple shape) is particularly associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Insulin resistance is also associated with high blood pressure and abnormalities in blood clotting.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) released new cancer prevention guidelines in September 2006.
Obesity has been associated with a higher risk for cancer in general and specific cancers in particular. One way in which obesity may increase the risk for cancer is its association with high levels of hormones called growth factors, which can trigger rapid cell production, leading to cancer. Obesity also puts people at risk for hypoxia, a condition in which there is not enough oxygen to meet the body's needs. The Pickwickian syndrome, named for an overweight character in a Dickens novel, occurs in severe obesity when lack of oxygen produces intense and chronic sleepiness and, eventually, heart failure. Weight gain in children is also linked to asthma, gallbladder problems, sleep apnea, and liver abnormalities.
Maintain a regular exercise program, assuming you have no health problems that will stop you. Weight loss, in any case, should not be the only or even the primary goal for people concerned about their health. If you "fall off the wagon," take steps to ensure you do not repeat the situation (recover from lapses with constructive action). Childhood obesity is best treated by a non-drug, multidisciplinary approach, including diet, behavior modification, and exercise. Limit (or avoid, if possible) take out, fast foods, high-sugar snacks, commercial packaged snacks, soda, and sugar-sweetened beverages (including too much juice). Taking off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS), a nonprofit support organization with many local chapters, is one of the least expensive programs, costing $26 a year. Most of the commercial programs, such as Weight Watchers, Jenny Craig, and NutriSystem, offer individual or group support, lifestyle changes, and packaged meals. Many regard the inability to follow a diet and lose weight as reflecting a lack of willpower. Short-term specific goals regarding exercise and eating should be approached as something to be learned rather than performed.
The patient first records in a diary all activity related to eating patterns, including the times of day, length of meal, emotional states, companions, and, of course, the kind and amounts of food eaten. The patient reviews the diary with a therapist or group to set realistic goals and identify patterns that the patient can change.
Behavioral modification has been shown to be helpful particularly for people who have an overly strong response to the taste, smell, and appearance of food. It should be noted that increasing activity level in daily work and home life helps a great deal. The more strenuous the exercise, the better the chances for short-term and long-term success. As people slim down, their initial level of physical activity becomes easier and they burn fewer calories for the same amount of work. The original food pyramid, with four food groups, has been replaced with an updated food guide called "My Pyramid." This illustrates the relative proportions of different foods that make up a nutritious, well-balanced diet and includes exercise. As a rough rule of thumb, one pound of body fat is the result of eating about 3,500 calories.
To determine your daily calories requirements, multiply the number of pounds of ideal weight by 12 - 15 calories.
This dietary approach requires counting only grams of fat with the goal of achieving 30% or fewer calories from fat. Some people who reduce their fat intake severely may not get enough basic nutrients, including vitamins A and E, folic acid, calcium, iron, and zinc. Many people start eating foods with too many carbohydrates, believing that they are not adding calories.
Replacing fatty foods, such as cakes, cookies, and chips, with their commercial "low-fat" counterparts does not constitute a low-fat diet. Insoluble fiber (found in wheat bran, whole grains, seeds, nuts, and fruit and vegetable peels) has been associated with weight loss.
Soluble fiber (found in dried beans, oat bran, barley, apples, citrus fruits, and potatoes) has important benefits for the heart, particularly for achieving healthy cholesterol levels and possibly benefiting blood pressure as well. Low carbohydrate diets generally restrict the amount of carbohydrates but do not restrict protein sources.
The Atkins diet restricts complex carbohydrates in vegetables and, particularly, fruits that are known to protect against heart disease. There has been debate about whether Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets can increase the risk for heart disease, as people who follow these diets tend to eat more animal-saturated fat and protein and less fruits and vegetables. Low-carbohydrate diets help with weight loss in the short term, possibly better than diets that allow normal amounts of carbohydrates and restrict fats.
Replacing fats and sugars with substitutes may help many people who have trouble maintaining weight. Other sugar substitutes being investigated include glycyrrhizin (derived from licorice) and dihycrochalcone (derived from citrus fruits). Some studies have reported good success with meal replacement beverages (such as Slim-Fast and Sweet Success). One study reported that most subjects who had undergone a 12-week weight loss program followed by using Ultra Slim Fast supplements as directed for maintenance kept off more than half their weight loss after more than 3 years.
Some evidence suggests that a diet rich in magnesium could reduce a person's risk of metabolic syndrome, a cluster of problems that include obesity, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. The care of patients undergoing bariatric surgery, before and after surgery, requires specialized expertise and facilities.
The malabsorptive procedures are more successful in achieving weight loss than the banding approach, but they carry a greater risk for nutritional deficiencies. Most people who have bariatric surgery lose about two-thirds of excess weight within 2 years. A number of studies have been published showing that bariatric surgery leads to improved control of diabetes and hypertension. Other studies have shown that even though most patients maintain significant weight loss, the majority regain about 10% of their weight. Any surgical candidate must have failed consistently in losing weight through less invasive methods. Patient considering bariatric surgery should be well-informed regarding the procedure, its efficacy, side effects, and complications.
About a third of people who undergo these procedures achieve normal weight, and 80% experience some weigh loss. The Lap-Band procedure restricts the amount of food a person can eat and gives the feeling of fullness. By definition, these procedures bypass the first part of the small intestine and carry poorly digested food to a part of the intestine that cannot absorb it as easily. Vomiting: This is the most common complication, and it is most common with banding procedures. Nutritional deficiencies: There is a strong risk of nutritional deficiencies, particularly with malabsorptive operations. Deep-vein thrombosis: There is a significant risk for deep-vein thrombosis (blood clots in the veins).
Rapid weight loss after surgery: This complication puts people at high risk for gallstones. People at highest risk for complications are those with heart or lung problems, severe obesity, and a history of abdominal surgeries.
Follow-up appointments are essential to determine if nutritional supplements, such as iron, calcium, vitamin B12, or other nutrients, are needed. Patients should eat small meals (usually six) throughout the day, rather than large meals that the stomach can no longer handle. The new stomach probably won't be able to handle both solid food and fluids at the same time. Exercise and the support of others (for example, joining a support group with people who have undergone weight-loss surgery) are extremely important in achieving and maintaining weight loss after bariatric surgery. Liposuction eliminates fat in specific areas, such as the abdomen, thighs, buttocks, or knees. Nearly all the current over-the-counter dietary aids contain some combination of these ingredients.
Chromium is a common ingredient in many diet supplements (such as Xenadrine, Dexatrim, Acutrim Natural, and Twinlab Diet Fuel).
Last week MailOnline told the story of how Ross lost 1st 11lbs in 24 hours by drinking very little water and using saunas and sweat suits. And, 'more importantly, how your nutrition and self esteem shouldn't be governed by the weighing scales if you're on a diet'. Mr Edgley says his weight loss tactic should be approached with extreme caution as it could cause serious health problems, or even prove fatal. This meant even though he only drank 100ml of water that day, he went to the loo about 20 times.
He added: a€?I must stress that although I lost 25 pounds in 24 hours, absolutely none of this was fat and I immediately put it all back on within two hours after I finished the experiment.
Mr Edgley began the experiment with a very hot Epsom salt bath which caused him to sweat profusely. Instead I begin my day with one ridiculously hot Epsom salt bath coupled with a 100ml bottle of water laced with diuretics.
The first five minutes of the bath were actually quite nice but around the seven minute mark this changed. As weird as it sounds this felt amazing and luckily no one was home to witness what was clearly not the proudest moment of my life, an intimate encounter with a cold, stone toilet base.
9:00pm Standing on the scales for one last time I nervously await the scales decision as it flickers and calculates my number.
To understand ourselves it is important to understand our ancestors, and a part of them, and their heritage, lives on in us today. To the world the American Indians seemed like a forgotten people when the English colonists first arrived and began to occupy their lands. I want to give special thanks to my cousin, Mary Hilliard, for her assistance and encouragement in researching and preparing this book.
Wherever possible I have tried to find at least two sources for the genealogical data, but this has not always been possible.
I have also found Franklin Elewatum Bearce's history, Who Our Forefathers Really Were, A True Narrative of Our White and Indian Ancestors, to be very helpful.
It is certainly possible that such a record may contain errors, but it is also very fortunate that we have access to this record as it presents firsthand knowledge of some of the individuals discussed in this book. 8 Newcomba€? Cpt. Sometime before the colonial period, the Iroquoian tribes began moving from the southern plains eastward across the Mississippi River and then northeasterly between the Appalachians and the Ohio River Valley, into the Great Lakes region, then through New York and down the St. Though they were neighbors and had similar skin color, these two groups of Indians were as dissimilar as the French and the Germans in Europe.
Federations, as well as the individual tribes, were fluid organizations to the extent that the sachem was supported as long as he had the strength to maintain his position. Belonging to a federation meant that an annual tribute had to be sent to support the great sachem and his household, warriors had to be sent if he called for a given number to go to war, and strictest obedience and fidelity was demanded.
Some of these federations had as many as thirty member tribes supporting their Great Sachem, although many of these tribes would be counted by more than one sachem, as any tribe that was forced to pay tribute was considered as part of that Great Sachem's federation. Any member of the society who dishonored himself, in anyway, was no longer worthy of the respect of his people. When viewing the typical Indians of America, one would describe them as having a dark brown skin. They wore relatively little clothing, especially in summer, although the women were usually somewhat more modest than the men. The English resented the fact that the Indians wouldn't convert to Christianity as soon as the missionaries came among them.
The various tribes of New England spoke basically the same language and could understand each other well. There are many words used commonly in our language today that were learned from these New England Indians: Squaw, wigwam, wampum, pow-wow, moccasin, papoose, etc. Today there is little doubt that prior to Columbus's voyage, the Norsemen sailed to the coast of North America early in the eleventh century. We do not have a record of all of the European contact and influence on the Indians in the early years of exploration because the greatest exposure came from the early European fishermen and trappers who kept no records of their adventures, as opposed to the explorers. In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazano wrote the first known description of a continuous voyage up the eastern coast of North America.
As the fur trade became increasingly more important to Europeans, they relied heavily on the Indians to do the trapping for them.
Another problem with which the Indians had to contend was the White man's diseases for which they had no tolerance nor immunity. In the spring of 1606, Gorges sent Assacumet and Manida, as guides on a ship with Captain Henry Chalons, to New England to search for a site for a settlement. In 1614, Captain John Smith, who had already been involved in the colony at James Town, Virginia, was again commissioned to take two ships to New England in search of gold, whales or anything else of value.
Dermer wanted to trade with the local Indians of the Wampanoag Federation and asked Squanto if he would guide them and be their interpreter.
Derner was given safe passage through Wampanoag land by Massasoit and soon returned to his ship.
When the Pilgrims left England in the Mayflower, their stated intent was to establish a settlement on the mouth of the Hudson River, at the site of present day New York City.
The Pilgrims returned to the Mayflower and, after many days of exploration, found a more suitable location.
On March 16, 1621 the Pilgrims were surprised by a tall Indian who walked boldly into the plantation crying out, "Welcome! The Pilgrims gestured for Massasoit to join them in their fort but, he in turn, gestured for them to come to him. When the amenities were ended, the English brought out a treaty they had prepared in advance, which specified that the Wampanoags would be allies to the English in the event of war with any other peoples and that they would not harm one-another; and that when any Indians came to visit the plantation they would leave their weapons behind. After the ceremonies were ended, Governor Carver escorted Massasoit to the edge of the settlement and waited there for the safe return of Winslow. Part of Massasoit's willingness to make an alliance with the English must be credited to his weakened condition after suffering from the recent epidemics which left his followers at about half of the strength of his enemies, the Narragansetts. In June of 1621, about three months after the signing of the treaty, a young boy from the Colony was lost in the woods.
When the English could not find the boy, Governor William Bradford, (who replaced John Carver, who died in April) sent to Massasoit for help in locating the boy. That summer Governor Bradford sent Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, with Squanto, to Pokanoket (Massasoit's own tribe, on the peninsula where Bristol, R.I. From this trip of Winslow's, we learn more about the daily life of the Indians in this area. Massasoit urged his guests to stay longer but they insisted they must return to Plymouth before the Sabbath. Less than a month following this visit, Massasoit sent Hobomock, a high ranking member of the Wampanoag Council, to Plymouth to act as his ambassador and to aid the Pilgrims in whatever way they needed. Hobomock and Squanto were surprised at what they heard, and quietly withdrew from the camp to Squanto's wigwam but were captured there before they could get to Plymouth. Although the Narragansetts and Wampanoags were historical enemies and continually feuding over land, they did not usually put hostages of high rank to death.
Normally, treason was punishable by death and Massasoit would certainly have been justified in executing Corbitant for his part in the plot against him but, for some reason, Massasoit complete forgave him. Their first harvest was not a large one but the Pilgrims were.happy to have anything at all. During the winter, a rivalry developed between Squanto and Hobomock, the two Indians who now lived continually at Plymouth. According to the treaty he had signed with Plymouth, they were to turn over to him any Indians guilty of offense.
In June and July, three ships arrived at Plymouth with occupants who expected to be taken in and cared for.
In the winter of 1622-23, Governor William Bradford made trips to the various Indian tribes around Cape Cod to buy food to keep the Pilgrims from starvation. Next, Standish went to Cummaquid (Barnstable, MA.) where Iyanough was Sachem of the Mattachee Tribe.

Thinking that Massasoit was dead, they went instead to Pocasset, where they sought Corbitant who, they were sure, would succeed Massasoit as the next Great Sachem. Winslow describes their arrival, where the Indians had gathered so closely that it took some effort to get through the crowd to the Great Sachem. Since the Pow-wow's medicine had not produced any results, Winslow asked permission to try to help the ailing Sachem. Their second Thanksgiving was combined with the wedding celebration of Governor Bradford and Alice Southworth. Because of Massasoit's honored position, more was recorded of him than of other Indians of his time. Massasoit most likely became Sachem of the Pokanokets, and Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, between 1605-1615. The second son of Massasoit was Pometacomet, (alias Pometacom, Metacom, Metacomet, Metacomo or Philip.) Philip was born in 1640, at least 16 years younger than Alexander. The third son, Sunconewhew, was sent by his Father to learn the white man's ways and to attend school at Harvard. When his two oldest sons were old enough to marry, Massasoit made the arrangements for them to marry the two daughters of the highly regarded Corbitant, Sachem of the Pocasset tribe. The tribes of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, as well as some of the Nipmuck tribes of central Massachusetts, looked to him for Military defense and leadership. Following the plagues of 1617, which reduced his nation so drastically and left his greatest enemy, the Narragansetts of Rhode Island, so unaffected, Massasoit was in a weakened position. In 1632, following a battle with the Narragansetts in which he regained the Island of Aquidneck, Massasoit changed his name to Ousamequin (Yellow feather) sometimes spelled Wassamegon, Oosamequen, Ussamequen. In 1637, the English waged an unprovoked war of extermination against the Pequot Federation of Connecticut, which shocked both the Wampanoags and the Narragansetts so much that both Nations wanted to avoid hostilities with the feared English. After hearing of the death of his good friend, Edward Winslow in 1655, Massasoit realized that his generation was passing away.
As Massasoit's health began to decline, he turned more and more of the responsibilities over to Alexander who was a very capable leader and who was already leading the warriors on expedition against some of their enemies. Massasoit was succeeded, as Great Sachem, by his son Alexander, assisted by his brother, Philip.
The younger generation saw, in Alexander, a strong, new leader who could see the danger of catering to the English.
Both Philip and Weetamoo were very vocal in their condemnation of the English and word of their accusations soon reached Plymouth. Together, Philip and Canonchet reasoned that it would take a great deal of preparation for such a war. BackgroundA stable weight depends on a balance between the energy you get from food and the energy you use. Your body generally uses this energy to keep your temperature steady and the muscles of your heart and intestine working. When you take in more calories than you use, the extra fat is stored in your lipocytes and you begin to accumulate fat. People might be over the weight limit for normal standards, but if they are very muscular with low body fat, they are not obese. Anthropometry is the measurement of skin fold thickness in different areas, particularly around the triceps, shoulder blades, and hips. Eating patterns are controlled by areas in the hypothalamus and pituitary glands (in the brain). Genetic factors such as slow metabolisms may also make people more likely to be overweight, and there have been some genetic mutations identified in rare causes of severe obesity. However, recent studies of thousands of preteen twin pairs found that genetic factors have a considerable influence on BMI and obesity.
But, patients with an underactive thyroid generally show only a moderate weight increase of five to 10 pounds.
Researchers found that labor saving devices had reduced a person's energy use by over 100 calories a day -- adding up to an extra 11 pounds a year. According to a major 2003 study, for every 2 hours a person spends in front of the TV each day, the risk for obesity increases by 23% and for type 2 diabetes by 14%. Women gain fat predominantly in the stomach, hips, and thighs, while men tend to gain fat in the belly and waist. Among ethnic groups in general, African-American women are more overweight than Caucasian women are, but African-American men are less obese than Caucasian men are. Regionally, the prevalence of obesity is lowest in the Western states and highest in the South. Night-eating syndrome is defined as having no appetite in the morning, insomnia, and consuming more than half of the daily food intake after 6 p.m. About 30% of people who are obese are binge eaters who typically consume 5,000 - 15,000 calories in one sitting.
Some people, mostly middle-aged women who have normal weight, follow a pattern called restrained eating.
Some evidence suggests that eating small frequent meals uses more calories than infrequent large meals. Office workers, drivers, and people who sit for long periods are at higher risk for obesity.
People who have a chronic mental illness are at high risk for obesity and diabetes, most likely due to their lifestyle. Ethnic variations, timing of growth spurts, and higher normal fat levels around puberty can affect these measurements. Without educational or parental guidance, children are extremely vulnerable to the intense cultural pressures that are largely responsible for the obesity epidemic. Not only is it a sedentary activity, but television also offers innumerable temptations with its advertisements for fast foods, sugar cereals, and unhealthy snacks.
One study reported that drinking soda regularly increases a child's risk for obesity by 60%. A high level of physical activity -- not just using up energy -- is important for weight control in young people. Parental obesity more than doubles the risk that a young child, whether thin or overweight, will become obese as an adult. Nevertheless, given the healthful effects of breastfeeding and the possibility that it may have even a slight impact on childhood obesity, it is highly recommended. The odds of obesity persisting into adulthood range from 20% in 4 year olds to 80% in teenagers. This growth in mass may be responsible for the greater risk of persistent obesity among teenagers compared to small children who are overweight. As fat stores increase, the fat cells themselves swell and produce chemicals that increase the risk for several diseases, including diabetes, heart attack, stroke, high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, and many cancers.
The increased body weight itself causes problems that result in injury and diseases, including osteoarthritis and sleep apnea. Weight concentrated around the abdomen and in the upper part of the body (the apple shape) poses a higher health risk than fat that settles around the hips and flank (the pear shape). It is still not clear if being overweight (a BMI of 25 - 29.9) hurts healthy people with no risk factors for serious illnesses.
In any case, adults who are overweight in middle age face a poor quality of life as they age, with the quality declining the more they weigh. In support of this argument, a British study found that overweight fit individuals had half the death rate of unfit trim individuals.
Mortality rates from many causes are higher in obese people, but heart disease is the primary cause of death.
It is also associated with increased risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, and unhealthy cholesterol levels. High blood pressure is the health problem most commonly associated with obesity, and the greater the weight, the greater the risk. Obesity is associated with both hypertension and type 2 diabetes, conditions that place people at risk for heart failure. Although obesity does not appear to be strongly associated with overall cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels (the major form of fat storage in the body) are usually high in obese people, while HDL levels (the "good" cholesterol) tend to be low.
Most people with type 2 diabetes are obese and weight loss may be the key in controlling the current epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Some research indicates that obesity, in fact, is the one common element linking insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and high blood pressure. Metabolic syndrome (also called syndrome X) is a pre-diabetic condition that is significantly associated with heart disease and higher mortality rates from all causes. Studies report that the incidence of osteoarthritis is significantly increased in people who are overweight.
Abnormal amounts of body fat, either 10 - 15% too high or too low, can contribute to infertility in women.
People with obesity, particularly if they also have type 2 diabetes, are at higher risk for a condition called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, also called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). At night, however, it takes them longer to fall asleep, and they sleep less than people with normal weights.
Obesity, particularly the apple shape, is strongly associated with sleep apnea, which occurs when the upper throat relaxes and collapses from time to time during sleep.
A number of studies have reported an association between depression and obesity, particularly in obese women. One long-term study reported that overweight young women completed fewer years of school, were 20% less likely to be married, and had 10% higher rates of household poverty than their thinner peers.
Studies are reporting unhealthy cholesterol levels and high blood pressure in overweight children and adolescents. Overweight girls are more likely to enter puberty early, according to a new study, and subsequently be at higher risk for breast cancer.
Diet failure is extremely common, and the odds of significant weight loss are low, particularly in people with the highest weights. A stomach that has been stretched by large meals will continue to signal hunger for large amounts of food until its size reduces over time with smaller meals. Many people significantly underestimate their consumption of high-calorie foods and overestimate intake of low-calorie foods.
Most studies indicate that yo-yo dieting or weight cycling have no bad psychological or physical effects. The success of weight loss efforts should be evaluated according to improvements in disease risk factors or symptoms, and by the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits, not just by the number of pounds lost. Evidence suggests that reducing calories by only 200 - 260 per day would prevent weight gain in most overweight children.
Eating small frequent healthy meals (instead of two or three large ones) has been associated with being thinner and having a better cholesterol profile. One study indicated that children naturally ate 25% less when they chose their own portion size. It does not help, and such attitudes could put children at risk for eating disorders, which are equal or even greater dangers to their health. This can contribute significantly to weight control, regardless of diet and physical activity. This may be as beneficial, possibly more, than a standard reduced-fat diet in overweight children. Also, planning ahead when invited to eat out or going to another home for food is recommended.
Most support programs use some form of cognitive-behavioral methods to change the daily patterns associated with eating. Most people -- even professional dieticians, according to one study -- tend to underreport their daily calorie intake. For instance, if food is normally eaten while watching television, then the patient may be advised to eat in another room instead. These rewards are other pleasures that substitute the high calorie consumption and sedentary activities.
Stress reduction and relaxation techniques may be helpful for some people with obesity, such as those whose weight is related to night-eating syndrome. Exercise, which replaces fat with muscle, is the critical companion for any weight control program.
For example, walking down the hall to speak with a coworker, rather than spending the same time sending an e-mail, may result in a loss of 5 kg over a 10-year period. Exercise improves psychological well-being and replaces sedentary habits that usually lead to snacking. With intense exercise, the metabolism continues to burn calories before returning to its resting level. The rate of weight loss slows down, sometimes discouragingly so, after an initial dramatic head start using diet and exercise combinations. Men tend to lose abdominal fat (which lowers their risk for heart disease faster than reducing general body fat).
Anyone seeking to lose weight must expect that the results may not be as cosmetically satisfying as one would wish. Because obesity is one of the risk factors for heart disease and diabetes, anyone who is overweight must discuss their exercise program with a doctor before starting.
A person could lose a pound a week by reducing daily caloric intake by about 500 calories a day.
One gram of fat contains nine calories, while one gram of carbohydrates or protein has only four calories.
People on low-fat diets should eat a wide variety of foods and take a multivitamin supplement, if appropriate. No one should use a low-fat diet as an excuse for eating too many carbohydrates, particularly starchy foods and sugar.
These foods generally contain more sugar and hence calories, not to mention other ingredients, which have virtually no nutritional value. It should come from plant oils and fish, however, and not from animal products or hardened oils, such as margarine.
In all cases, complex carbohydrates found in whole grains and vegetables are preferred over those found in starch-heavy foods, such as pastas, white-flour products, and potatoes. Studies also suggest that diets rich in fiber from whole grains reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes.
The Atkins diet can also cause excessive calcium excretion in the urine, which increases the risk for kidney stones and osteoporosis. In general, these diets appear to lower triglyceride levels and raise HDL ("good") cholesterol levels. Fat substitutes added to commercial foods or used in baking deliver some of the desirable qualities of fat, but they do not add as many calories. Studies suggest that it helps improve cholesterol levels and may help overweight people lose weight. Products using this substance (Nu-Trim) may reduce cholesterol and have additional health benefits. Although studies to date have not shown any significant adverse health effects, their effect on weight control is uncertain, since many of the products containing them may be high in sugar. Aspartame has come under scrutiny because of rare reports of nervous system disorders, including headaches or dizziness, associated with its use. Sucralose has no bitter aftertaste and works well in baking, unlike other artificial sweeteners. This reduced-calorie sweetener is made from lactose, which is the sugar found in dairy products and other foods.
Studies have shown that the likelihood of complications is significantly associated with the experience of the surgeon and staff. These procedures restrict the amount of food by closing off parts of the stomach with bands.
This approach restricts the amount of food and also reduces absorption by using a bypass of parts of the intestine. In addition, diseases associated with obesity (such as diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, joint pain, and incontinence) often improve. Patients must still develop a healthy lifestyle and be calorie conscious after the operation. A full evaluation, including a psychological evaluation, should be performed on all candidates for surgery. They are less successful than the bypass procedures, but carry a lower risk of nutritional deficiencies.
Laparoscopic gastric banding (the Lap-Band) usually does not require a major incision and avoids some of the major complications of gastric bypass.
It employs an adjustable silicone band that is placed around the upper part of the stomach. Studies have shown improvements in control of type 2 diabetes and reduction in blood pressure. Side effects and complications of bariatric procedures are common, and up to 25% of patients need corrective or repeat procedures. Newer, laparoscopic techniques do not carry this risk, but not all individuals are candidates for this less-invasive approach. The mortality rate from bariatric surgeries is 0.2%, which is lower than the morality rates from severe obesity itself.
Nausea, vomiting, or both occurs in half of patients, and severe heartburn occurs in a third. In patients receiving a pouch procedure, the pouch eventually expands to about one cup of chewed food (a normal stomach can hold up to one quart).
Patients should separate fluid and food intake by at least 30 minutes and only sip what they are drinking. Even sooner than that, most patients will be able to take short walks at a comfortable pace, after consulting with their doctor.
Special instruments are inserted through the skin into the pockets, and suction is used to move the fat, break it up, and remove it. People must be cautious when using any weight-loss medications, including over-the counter diet pills and herbal remedies. Some studies have suggested that regular tea drinking is associated with lower weight, particularly in people who drink it for years.
An approach to weight loss called thermogenic (or hepatothermic) therapy is based on the claim that certain natural compounds have properties that enable the liver to increase energy in cells and stimulate metabolism. There is no evidence that any of these ingredients can produce weight loss, and some may even have harmful effects. The FDA has warned consumers not to buy a product known as the "Brazilian diet pill." This product is labeled as a dietary supplement, but contains several chemicals found in powerful prescription drugs.
Conjugated linoleic acid is found in many dietary products (such as Biosculpt Liquid, Body Success, and GNC Optibolic Body Answers Dietary Formula).
Over-the-counter products containing tiratricol, a thyroid hormone, have been sold for weight loss. Many dietary herbal teas contain laxatives, which can cause gastrointestinal distress, and, if overused, may lead to chronic pain, constipation, and dependency. Some fiber supplements containing guar gum have also caused obstruction of the esophagus and gastrointestinal (digestive) tract. Chitosan, a dietary fiber from shellfish, prevents a small amount of fat from being absorbed in the intestine.
Dietary remedies that list the ingredient plantain may contain digitalis, a powerful chemical that affects the heart.
Cut back on junk food, forego a few glasses of wine?In a bid to push his body to the limit, writer and sport scientist Ross Edgley decided to take things to an extreme level, losing 24lb in 24 hours.
The 28-year-old said: a€?So many people are slaves to the scales and have their self-esteem and nutrition governed by them.
He explains: a€?As much as 50 per cent to 70 per cent of our body weight is made up of water. After five minutes I managed to get to my feet and thankfully my efforts were rewarded early in the day when stepping onto the scales I discovered I had already lost four pounds, now just 20 more to go. Looking gaunt I actually feel surprisingly perky since I just took 150mg of caffeine to help get my body over the final hurdle, plus caffeine is a diuretic itself. At first I was very skeptical of this record as it was a family tradition passed down for many generations. She was very fond of her Grandmother, Freelove, knew all about her and stated on several occasions that Freelove's Mother was Sarah Mauwee, daughter of Joseph Mauwee, Sachem of Choosetown, and not Tabitha Rubbards (Roberts). Massasoit was the Sachem of this tribe, as well as being the Great Sachem over the entire Wampanoag Federation, which consisted of over 30 tribes in central and southeastern Massachusetts, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. Welcome, Englishmen!" It was a cold and windy day, yet this Indian, who introduced himself as Samoset, Sachem of a tribe in Monhegan Island, Maine, wore only moccasins and a fringed loin skin. Nevertheless, a study of over 4,300 twins found that physical activity can override the genetic predisposition for high body mass index and wide waist circumference.
In the study, TV watching produced the lowest metabolic rates compared to sewing, playing board games, reading, writing, and driving a car. In general, the people who gain weight eat more and their portions are larger than those who do not. Low income women and their families tend to have fewer fruits and vegetables and are actually taking in more calories a day than higher-income women. To be diagnosed as a binge eater, a person has to binge at least twice a week for 6 months. This pattern requires a high level of conscious control and usually maintains a lower weight.

It should be strongly noted, however, that packaged snack foods add calories, and some do not produce a feeling of being full, so that people simply eat more than they should. Nicotine increases the metabolic rate, and quitting, even without eating more, can cause weight gain, which may be considerable. Those with disabilities in the lower part of the body, such as the legs, are at highest risk. In addition, many of the medications used to treat chronic mental illnesses can cause weight gain and increase the risk of diabetes.
The average American adolescent consumes 15 - 20 extra teaspoons of sugar a day just from soda and sugary drinks.
Unfortunately, according to one study, the annual distance walked by children has fallen by nearly 30% since 1972.Schools are also offering fewer opportunities for daily physical activities than in the past. In older children and teenagers, obesity in parents starts to count less as a predictor for body weight than their own weight. Losing weight after adolescence reduces the size of the fat cells but not their number, so weight loss becomes much more difficult. Fat cells in the upper part of the body appear to have different qualities from those found in the lower parts.
People who are obese have almost three times the risk for heart disease as people with normal weights. Fat that settles in a pear shape around the hips and lower body appears to have a lower association with these conditions. Evidence strongly suggests that obesity itself is a major risk factor for heart failure, particularly in women.
The syndrome consists of obesity marked by abdominal fat, unhealthy cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and insulin resistance. The ACS indicates that healthy weight is even more important than eating specific healthy foods, when it comes to cancer prevention. People who are obese are also at higher risk for carpal tunnel syndrome and other problems involving nerves in their wrists and hands.
Obesity is especially related to certain infertility problems, such as uterine fibroids and menstrual irregularities. These include high blood pressure, gestational diabetes (diabetes, usually temporary, that occurs during pregnancy), urinary tract infections, blood clots, prolonged labor, and higher fetal death rate in late stages of pregnancy. They tend to have breathing muscles and lungs that do not work as well as those in thinner people.
In an apparent vicious circle, studies have suggested that obesity not only interferes with sleep but that sleep problems may actually contribute to obesity. Obese young men were also less likely to be married, and their incomes were lower than their thinner peers. Of great concern is the dramatic increase in type 2 diabetes in young people, which is largely due to the increase in overweight children.
It is not clear yet how many of these childhood problems persist in people who achieve normal weight as adults. People who are able to restrict calories, engage in an exercise program, and get help in making behavioral changes can expect to lose 5 - 10% of their current body weight. People who do not carefully note everything they eat tend to take in too many calories when they believe they are dieting.
If it is difficult to monitor all meals during the week, it be may be useful to at least track eating habits during the weekends. Such a diet focuses on certain carbohydrates (for example, dried beans and soy), which raise blood sugar more slowly than other types of carbohydrates. This program "focuses on three important behaviors: improved food choices, increased physical activity and reduced screen time." We can! Some suggest attempting to shift the approach to one of managing where one focuses their attention.
However, writing it down is still a good method for increasing a person's awareness of eating patterns. For example, simply getting up to turn the TV on and off instead of using the remote, and standing (instead of sitting) while talking on the phone may help a person lose up to five pounds a year.
In a one-year study, women who regularly averaged 3.5 days (176 minutes) of exercise each week lost significantly more weight than women who did not exercise regularly.
In addition, if a person exercises but doesn't diet, any actual pounds lost may be minimal, because denser and heavier muscle mass replaces fat. This state of elevated metabolism can last for as little as a few minutes after light exercise to as long as several hours after prolonged or heavy exercise. In fact, frequent exercise sessions as short as 10 minutes in duration (about four times a day) may be the most successful exercise program for obese people. Exercise, however, does not appear to have the same effect on weight distribution in women. Spot exercising (training particular areas of the body) is ineffective in reducing fat in specific locations because exercise draws on fat stores throughout the body. For instance, a 50-year old woman who wants to maintain a weight of 135 pounds and is mildly active might require only 12 calories per pound (1,620 calories a day).
Such diets often do not have enough vitamins and minerals, which must then be taken as supplements. Fat in your diet converts more readily to fat in the body, compared with carbohydrates or proteins. Trans fatty acids, found in hardened oils, are actually more of a risk factor for obesity than saturated fats from animal products, although both should be avoided. People who increase their levels of soluble fiber should also increase water and fluid intake. Total cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol levels tend to remain stable or possibly increase somewhat. Likewise, long-term safety and other possible health effects are still a concern, especially since these diets restrict healthy foods such as fruit, vegetables, and grains while not restricting saturated fats. They cannot be eaten in unlimited amounts, however, and are considered most useful for helping keep down total calorie count.
Early reports of cramps and diarrhea after eating food containing olestra have not proven to be significant. People who learn to cook using foods naturally lacking or low in fat eventually lose their taste for high-fat diets, something that may not be true for those using fat substitutes. A 2002 study confirmed that people who consumed artificial sweeteners and reduced their sugar intake weighed less over time than those who took in similar types and amounts of drinks and food containing sugar. A small balloon-like reservoir attached to the band under the abdominal skin contains saline, which can be added or removed to tighten or loosen the band. Studies, including those done in the elderly, have reported significant weight loss and improved quality of life with the procedure. Furthermore, in a 2003 study, after standard bypass surgery, 83% of patients with type 2 diabetes had normal blood glucose levels, and the rest had significant weight reductions. It involves creating a small stomach pouch that serves as a reservoir and restricts food intake. The procedure produces greater and more sustained weight loss than banding procedures, but it is also more complicated. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, bloating, cramping, diarrhea, sweatiness, dizziness, and fatigue.
After any of these procedures people must chew all their food carefully, and they cannot eat large amounts of food at one time.
Nutritional deficiencies can also increase the risk of bone loss and osteoporosis, due to calcium deficiency. Device-related complications include band slippage, pouch dilation (widening), or both in nearly a quarter of patients, and obstruction in 12% of patients. Unless specifically instructed by a doctor, people should use non-drug methods for losing weight. In May 2004, the FDA banned the sale of dietary supplements that contain ephedra (also called Ma Huang). NOTE: This substance should not be confused with the harmless banana-like plant also called plantain.
HERE, ROSS EXPLAINS HIS RAPID WEIGHT LOSSCut out salt: Salt is known to store water in the body and promote water retention. This was purely to prove the point that the number on those bathroom scales can fluctuate and has very little to do with your body fat. The effects soon wore off though and this time I was only able to manage 30 minutes on the treadmill before my feet would literally not leave the floor and I had to hit the big red emergency stop button.
She obtained her copy of Zerviah Newcomb's Chronical from Zerviah's original diary, in the hands of Josiah 3rd himself. If people do not balance energy input and output by eating right and exercising, fat can build up. CausesObesity occurs when a person consumes more calories than they need for the energy they use.
Leptin appears to play an important role in insulin resistance and fat storage in the body, but its role in obesity is unclear. In people who have genetically lower levels of leptin, however, the brain may be tricked into thinking that it is always starving because there is no leptin to decrease appetite.
It should be noted that even when genetic factors are present, a person can still control their diet.
Gaining some weight is common with age, and adding about 10 pounds to a normal base weight over time is not harmful.
However, obesity is increasing in young adults with college education as well as in other groups. Many experts believe that binge-eating carbohydrates causes an increase in a natural opiate, leading to dependence on carbohydrates.
However, such restraint places these individuals at higher risk for loss of control and subsequent overeating. It is associated with more chronic health problems than smoking, heavy drinking, or poverty.
Many studies have reported that modest weight loss is beneficial for reducing existing high blood pressure. NASH occurs in about half of people with diabetes, and 20 - 50% of obese people, depending on how severe their obesity is. In people on ultra-low calorie diets, taking ursodeoxycholic acid (Actigall) may prevent gallstones. Sleep apnea is increasingly being viewed as a potentially serious health problem, which may lead to complications, such as heart disease and stroke. Nevertheless, studies consistently show that overweight males (both boys and men) are not as severely emotionally affected as females of any age. Evidence exists that exercise and adequate sleep will enhance the ability to manage and self-regulate behavior.
Other suggestions include cooking one's own food (instead of eating take-out or fast food), walking to as many places as possible, using stairs instead of escalators or elevators, and gardening. In one interesting study, women in aerobic and strength training programs lost fat in their arms and trunk, but did not gain muscle tissue in these regions. Gimmicky devices such as bust developers, vacuum pants, and exercise belts do absolutely nothing to reduce fat or add bulk in specific locations. Very-low calorie diets have also been associated with better success, but extreme diets can have some serious health consequences. A 25-year old female athlete who wants to maintain the same weight might need 25 calories per pound 2,025 (calories a day). Fiber is found only in plants, particularly vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts, and legumes (beans and peas).
However, large studies have not found an increased risk for heart disease, at least in the short term.
Of greater concern is the fact that even small amounts of olestra deplete the body of certain vitamins and nutrients that may help protect against serious diseases, including cancer. It should be noted that using these artificial sweeteners should not give dieters a license to increase their fat intake. Studies have not reported any serious health dangers in otherwise healthy individuals, but some people may be sensitive to aspartame.
Some people are concerned because chlorinated molecules used in major industrial chemicals have been associated with cancer and birth defects. Studies to date have reported no effects that would cause alarm, and it appears to be safe for general consumption. SurgerySurgical procedures for obesity may be appropriate for some dangerously obese people, and they may reduce heart problems and many of the risks associated with obesity. Some smaller trials have shown remission of type 2 diabetes in over 70% of patients having the surgery, compared to around 10% treated medically. The pouch eventually holds up to 3 ounces of food and has a small outlet that delays emptying and causes a feeling of fullness. If patients do not follow these guidelines, they will experience nausea, abdominal distress, or both.
Very serious complications are rare, but they can include blood clots, bleeding, infection, pneumonia, and perforation (tearing) of the stomach. The pain after the operation can be severe, and often the skin does not contract, resulting in a flabby look. Except under rare circumstances, pregnant or nursing women should never take diet medications of any sort, including herbal and over-the-counter remedies. Among the substances used in such products are EPA-rich fish oil, sesamin, hydroxycitrate, pantethine, L-carnitine, pyruvate, aloe vera, aspartate, chromium, coenzyme Q10, green tea polyphenols, aloe vera, DHEA derivatives, cilostazol, diazoxide, and fibrate drugs. On the negative side, animal studies have suggested that chromium may have damaging effects on genetic materials in cells. Furthermore, there is some concern that CLA might increase insulin resistance and a dangerous inflammatory response in people with obesity. Some laxative substances found in teas include senna, aloe, buckthorn, rhubarb root, cascara, and castor oil. Dragging myself to the changing room I then slowly got undressed and entered the sauna to lose the final six pounds.
Wasting no time finding my underwear I ran to my bag and necked a pre-made four litre bottle of water with diluted multi vitamins and electrolytes, much to the amazement of full changing room who had no idea of the last 24 hours I've endured. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, between 1970 and 2000 the typical American man increased his caloric intake by 168 calories a day (good for 17 pounds a year) while the average woman added 335 calories a day. In addition, the advertising on the television complicates the problem by promoting fast foods, cereal, and snack products that are high in salt, fats, and carbohydrates.
They generally contain more calories and unhealthy fats, and fewer nutritious ingredients, than homemade or restaurant meals. The prevalence of obesity in America has risen dramatically over the past few years and continues to increase.
Furthermore, given the current increase in obesity, it will surpass smoking as the most important preventable cause of death in America. In type 2 diabetes, different factors cause the body to become insulin resistant -- that is, the body can no longer respond properly to insulin. Even worse, according to a 2003 study, nearly a million American teenagers have this syndrome.
Infants of women who are obese are also at higher risk for neural tube birth defects, which affect the brain or spine. Obstructive sleep apnea may also add to obesity, however, as sleepy people tend to be sedentary. Overweight people may also become depressed because of social problems and a poor self-image.
Women and girls tend to blame themselves for being heavy, while males tend to blame being overweight on outside factors.
Lifestyle Changes and Psychosocial TreatmentsEven modest weight loss can reduce the risk factors for heart disease and diabetes.
Even fidgeting may be helpful in keeping pounds off, and, in one study, chewing gum increased energy expenditure.
Electrical pads wrapped around the waist, arms, or thighs were reported to cause burns and fires. Dietary ManagementThere are many approaches to dieting and many claims for great success with various fad diets.
Later, fat is lost, but so is muscle, which can account for more than 30% of the weight loss. Foods high on the glycemic index include bread, white potatoes, and pasta, while low-glycemic foods include whole grains, fruit, lentils, and soybeans.
The FDA requires that the missing vitamins, but not other nutrients, be added back to olestra products.
Studies indicate that consuming some sugar is not a significant contributor to weight gain, as long as the total amount of calories in the diet is under control. Over 100 studies have been conducted on sucralose over a 20-year period, with no reports of such risks. Then the surgeon creates a Y-shaped section in the small intestine that attaches to the pouch. While weight loss drugs in general have shown some benefit, the overall weight loss achieved is generally limited.
Epsom salt is made from magnesium sulphate which is a kind of salt that further works to 'suck' all the moisture out of the body. Bearce's Great-aunt, Mary Caroline, lived with Josiah III and Freelove Canfield Bearce for several years, listened to their ancestral stories, and made her own personal copy of Zerviah's diary supplement. Lawrence to what is now known as Lake Champlain where his party killed several Mohawks in a show of European strength and musketry.
Even worse, much of these advertisements are directed at children -- the most vulnerable group. Snack foods and sweet beverages, including juice and soft drinks, are specific problems that add to the increasing rates of obesity.
By age 55, the average American has added nearly 40 pounds of fat during the course of adulthood. Folic acid supplements, ordinarily effective in preventing these conditions, may not be as protective in overweight women. The simplest (but still difficult) approach to weight loss is reducing calories and exercising at least 150 minutes a week. To date, although many diets achieve effective immediate weight loss, none has emerged as an effective tool for maintaining healthy weight. Fiber cannot be digested but passes through the intestines, drawing water with it, and is eliminated as part of feces content. There is some public concern about chemicals used to produce many of these sweeteners, and the side effects seen in studies using rats. In fact, some evidence suggests that surgery may provide much greater control of weight and diabetes than nonsurgical weight-loss methods. Death during or after the surgery occurs in five out of 1000 patients having this procedure.
It was horrible and I won't be doing it again but hopefully it shows just how much the number on those bathroom scales can fluctuate and has very little to do with your body fat. Behavioral and mental changes in eating habits, physical activity, and attitudes about food and weight are also essential to weight management. The only definite recommendation that can be made about any diet plan is to be sure it includes an exercise program, assuming there are no health problems to forbid it.
Severe dieting has unpleasant side effects, including fatigue, intolerance to cold, hair loss, gallstone formation, and menstrual irregularities. Studies are reporting significant reductions in diabetes, and the need for diabetic medications, after surgery. A combined approach using behavioral therapy and antidepressants may help these individuals.
There have been rare reports of death from heart arrhythmias when liquid formulas did not have sufficient nutrients. Other medical conditions that often improve after surgery include heartburn, arthritis, and other joint and circulation problems.
So again you see by stopping your carb intake and also exercising to deplete the carbohydrates already in the body, you can dramatically reduce your weight.
Pregnant women who excessively diet during the first trimester put their unborn children at risk for birth defects.
Of note, those whose diets include a high intake of fluids and much reduced protein and sodium are at risk for hyponatremia, which can cause fatigue, confusion, dizziness, and in extreme cases, coma and death. This is because protein and fat doesn't store as muscle glycogen (additional weight) and the super greens and multi vitamins would help ensure my body had all the nutrient support possible whilst it suffered from dehydration and exhaustion. This wasA  important as what I did was very dangerous and so it was important I gave my body all the supplement support possible. He further told them that Massasoit, the Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, was at Nemasket (a distance of about 15 miles) with many of his Counselors.

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