Flexor extensor surface,soma vs flexeril muscle,how to build hip flexor muscle forearm,muscle pain after hip replacement surgery - PDF 2016

admin | Leg Hip Pain | 04.08.2014
Share8 Pin6 +12 Share TweetShares 16One Monday we covered a very famous stretch reflex, the myotatic reflex.
I like to talk about this reflex because it is simple enough to be explained in a straight forward manner, but still complex enough to show people that unconscious reflexes can involve quite complex behaviors. Lets say something hurts your leg strongly, you want to remove that leg from harms way (by flexing it away) and transfer your weight on the other leg so as not to loose balance. Flexor tendons are designed to flex joints via the relative movement of bones on either side of the articulation. Extensor tendons function to extend (or straighten) joints via the relative movement of bones on either side of the articulation. Digital tendon sheath, which houses the superficial and the deep digital flexor tendons as they course along the back-side of the fetlock joint.
Carpal tendon sheath, which encompasses the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons along the back of the carpus (or knee). Tarsal tendon sheath, which wraps around the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons near the back of the hock (tarsus) beginning at the top of the calcaneus (at the level of the tarsocrural joint) to a few inches below the tarsometatarsal joint. This article will discuss the basics of PD tenosynovitis, which is the most common form of the three. The introduction of an irritating matter (such as bacteria or a foreign body) into the sheath via laceration or puncture. The most obvious manifestation of digital tenosynovitis is visible distention (or effusion) of the proximal or upper portion of the sheath, which is evident along the back of the limb just above the fetlock joint. It should be noted that the term windpuff is not always emblematic of PD sheath swelling, but rather is a general term designating non-specific swelling around the fetlock area of the horse.
Although somewhat crude in nature, a lot can be gleaned through thorough digital palpation of the region.


Cytological analysis of synovial fluid aspirated from a tendon sheath can provide insight with regard to the nature of possible problems. The use of ultrasound allows for the visualization of all structures associated with the PD sheath, and is therefore an integral component of the diagnostic process.
Pathologic lesions associated with the flexor tendon(s) and sheath lining are easily discernible through ultrasonographic visualization.
Tenoscopy involves the insertion of an endoscope (identical to that used for arthroscopy) into the tendon sheath. This method provides a minimally-invasive approach that allows for direct visual examination and maximum exposure of the sheath's interior contents.
Of course, supplemental use of local (intrathecal) anesthesia can assist in confirming PD tenosynovitis as a source of pain and lameness when necessary. Regardless of the cause of tenosynovitis, we must reestablish normal synovial integrity and associated structure function if we are going maintain a sound horse. Reducing flexor tendon tension is most easily accomplished via corrective trimming and shoeing. Applying wedged pads as necessary to maintain a straight (or slightly broken-forward) distal limb axis. Rockering the toe just lateral (outside) to center to accommodate the horse's typical pattern of breakover. Reducing inflammation decreases the amount of fibrosis (scar tissue) that will eventually develop. Once the initial inflammation has subsided, we often elect to perform intrathecal injection. Intrathecal injection is best performed at the onset of the chronic stage (immediately pursuant to the acute phase).


In most cases a combination of synthetic hyaluronan and steroid is infused into the sheath using aseptic technique. Over time scar tissue developing within the compromised portions of the damaged sheath matures and organizes.
Surgical intervention is indicated in some cases of intrasynovial foreign bodies, tendon rupture, septic tenosynovitis, adhesion formation and annular ligament constriction.
Visualization of the internal sheath and associated structures is far superior using tenoscopy. Recovery time is much quicker as a result of smaller surgical incisions required for tenoscopy.
Prognosis for future performance following surgical manipulation is generally good although will vary depending on the nature and severity of the lesion(s). If you have any questions regarding PD tenosynovitis in the horse please call our office at (678) 867-2577.
While the stimulus for the myotatic was a short and light stretch of the tendon, this one requires a much stronger stimulus.
Surgical debridement of the sheath as well as reparative procedures are also possible under tenoscopic guidance (see below). In severe cases, the presence of chronic inflammation can promote the development of adhesions between the sheath lining and associated flexor tendons.



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Comments »

  1. kiss_my_90 — 04.08.2014 at 16:24:56 And was right back on her it's interesting to notice that your hip flexor.
  2. RamaniLi_QaQaS — 04.08.2014 at 14:34:49 Hallux rigidus wall with your injured thigh, neck, and wrist.