In this paper, a unified control system is discussed for the two-stage converter to work in both rectifier and regenerative mode. With the proposed controller, the converter can operate at these two modes and switch be-tween them seamlessly.
The Converter enables charging or discharging of the Batteries through bi-directional power flow.
The existing two different DC voltage battery bank of the distributed generation needs to interlink each other using a bi-directional DC-DC converter in order to minimize the unbalance of the output load currents of the three inverters connected to electric grid system. A detailed mathematical analysis of the converter under steady state and transient condition are presented. Moreover, the model has been validated on the actual operation of the converter, showing that the simulated results in Matlab Simulink are consistent with the experimental ones. This bidirectional DC-DC converter would connect the two-battery banks of the distributed energy resources.
The author designed the power and control circuit for this bidirectional DCDC converter and it is suited to this use.
System Design Figure 2 illustrates the power circuit configuration of a bidirectional DC-DC converter that was installed between the two banks of batteries at the renewable energy Figure 1.


Bidirectional power flow was obtained with a current-bidirectional two quadrant realization of the switch [2].
A feedback loop system was used to control of the output voltage of the converter for a PWM.
The Operation The current sensors, installed on the outputs of inverter 1 and inverter 2 (or 3), signals the micro-controller, and are responsible for determining the operation of DC-DC converter in either boost or buck mode.
The micro-controller was programmed so that it could control the operation of the bidirectional DC-DC converter.
The control strategies of this converter that are implemented in the PIC 16F684 are the following: 1) When the micro-controller reads that the current output in inverter 2 is higher than the current output in inverter 1, it will enable the PWM1. The microcontroller will drive MOSFET Q2, so that the converter operates as a boost converter. Steady State Analysis of the Bidirectional DC-DC Converter The voltage and current equations of a DC-DC converter under steady-state conditions can be found by using the two basic principles namely; the principle of inductor voltsecond balance and the principle of capacitor amp-second or charge balance. Thus, to determine the voltages and currents of DC-DC converters operating in periodic steady state, one averages the inductor current and capacitor voltage waveforms over one switching period, and equates the results to zero [4].
In Figure 5 the resistance RL of the inductor in the bidirectional DC-DC converter power circuit is being considered in order to model the circuit.


Dynamic Analysis of the Bidirectional DC-DC Converter A typical configuration of a power circuit for a DC-DC converter, when considering voltage and current parameters, is shown in Figure 5. When the DC-DC converter operates as a boost or buck converter and in a continuous conduction mode, the current in the inductor flows continuously [5]. The Simulink Model Based on the design of the power and control circuits presented in the previous section, an equivalent simulink model of the bidirectional DC-DC converter was constructed and is presented in Figure 10. All the parameters are based on the actual component values used in the fabrication of the bidirectional DC-DC converter.
It is noticed that the voltage change on the high or low side of the converter conforms to the type of mode of operation but the efficiency in buck mode is greater than the efficiency in boost mode operation because the control circuit is connected to the 24 V battery source. Bo, “Transient Current Suppression Scheme for Bi-Directional DC-DC Converters in 42V Automotive Power Systems,” Journal of Power Electronics, Vol.



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