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26.08.2012

Subcutaneous fat atrophy, what foods contain carbohydrates bbc - Within Minutes

Author: admin
Often, lipoatrophy and lipodystrophy are used as synonymous terms, but from a pathogenic point of view, they are two different disorders that lead to loss of subcutaneous fat.
From a histopathologic point of view, lipoatrophy is a residual process of several inflammatory conditions involving the subcutaneous fat lobules.
In fully developed lesions of lipodystrophy, there is an absence of subcutaneous fat with deposition of new collagen, no evidence of inflammation, and the dermis and the fascia are in direct apposition. Microscopically, atrophic epidermis appears thinned and shows loss of the rete ridges (rete ridges are the downward projections of the epidermis that interdigitate with the papillary or superficial dermis). Lipoatrophy refers specifically to a loss of subcutaneous fat due to a previous inflammatory process involving the subcutis. In most cases, the histopathologic findings are those of lipophagic granulomas surrounding a small-sized fat lobule with perilobular fibrosis. Atrophy of the dermis or subcutaneous fat manifests as a clinically detectable depression in the skin because of loss of underlying dermis or subcutaneous fat.


In contrast, lipodystrophy means an absence of subcutaneous fat with no evidence of inflammation. In those cases of lipoatrophy secondary to subcutaneous injection of corticosteroids, two different histopathologic patterns have been described. In the first type, there are prominent involutional changes in the fat lobule, with small adipocytes and intervening hyaline or myxoid connective tissue and proliferation of small blood vessels.
Fat atrophy or lipoatrophy shows loss of intracellular fat or lipid with the fat cells appearing smaller and closer together as compared to normal subcutaneous fat. Both patterns are characterized by the small size of the lobules and by the atrophy of the reduced number of adipocytes.
The second type is the inflammatory type, because lymphocytes, foamy histiocytes, and plasma cells appear within the small fat lobules with normal-appearing adipocytes and vasculature. These changes are more prominent at the periphery of otherwise histologically normal fat lobules, suggesting that this is an early alteration of the lipoatrophic process.


The general configuration of the fat lobule and the small size of the adipocytes resemble those of embryonic fat. The second histopathologic pattern seen in lesions of lipoatrophy secondary to subcutaneous injections of corticosteroids is characterized by small, atrophic fat cells surrounded by a prominent vasculature. The small size of the fat lobule and adipocytes, the relative absence of inflammation, and the proliferation of small blood vessels give an angiomatous appearance to the fat lobule.



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