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Exercise prescription for muscular strength, proper squat form with weights - Reviews

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AbstractPhysical exercise has attracted increased interest in rehabilitation of oncological patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and summarize the evidence of physical exercise in preventing cancer, its ability in attenuating the effect of cancer and its treatments and to provide guidelines for exercise prescription Review of recent literature by electronic search of MEDline (Pub Med), Cancer lit, Cochrane libraries, CINAHL were done using Keywords and the variables were identified and systematically evaluated. Framework PEACE: An organizational model for examining physical exercise across the cancer experience. Muscle strength, body composition and physical activity in women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Effect of aerobic exercise on body weight and composition in patients with breast cancer on adjuvant chemotherapy. The group psychotherapy and home-based physical exercise (Group-Hope) trial in cancer survivors: Physical fitness and quality of life outcomes. The effect of a multidimensional exercise programme on symptoms and side effects in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, The use of semi-structural diaries. Physical activity and risk for breast cancer: a prospective cohort study among Swedish twins. Occupational physical activity and risk for prostate cancer in a nationwide cohort study in Sweden. The impact of exercise on the immune system: NK cells, interleukins 1 and 2, and related responses. A review of the benefits of whole body exercise during and after treatment for breast cancer. Effects of exercise on breast cancer patients and survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Physical exercise in cancer patients during and after medical treatment: a systematic review of randomized and controlled clinical trials. Structured exercise improves physical functioning in women with stages I and II breast cancer: results of a randomized controlled trial. Randomized controlled trial of exercise training in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: cardiopulmonary and quality of life outcomes.
Functional-task exercise versus resistance strength exercise to improve daily function in older women: a randomized controlled trial.
Interventions implemented through sporting organisations for increasing participation in sport. Randomized pilot test of a life style physical activity intervention for breast cancer survivors. Nutrition and physical activity during and after cancer treatment: An American Cancer Society Guide for Informed Choices. There is strong evidence for reduced risk of colorectal and breast cancer with possible association for prostate, endometrial and lung cancer with increasing physical activity.
Exercise helps cancer survivors cope with and recover from treatment; exercise may improve the health of long term cancer survivors and extend survival.
The International agency for research on cancer (IARC) estimates that 25% of cancer cases worldwide are caused by overweight or obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. However, an understanding of the amount, type and intensity of exercise needed has not been fully elucidated. There is sufficient evidence to promote exercise in cancer survivors following careful assessment and tailoring on exercise prescription. At least 15 meta-analysis have been published reviewing 100 studies showing the nearly universal to multifactorial benefits of exercise in this patient population.

Evidence of the benefits of exercise for cancer survivors in areas of psychological and quality of life (QOL) outcomes, [6] cancers related fatigue, [7] physical functioning, [8] body weight and composition, [9] muscle strength and endurance, [10] immune function [11] and cardiovascular [12],[13] fitness have been reported.
Definition of cancer survivor: As suggested by the national coalition of cancer survivorship to refer to any individual diagnosed with cancer from the time of discovery and for the balance of life. Physical exercise is defined as planned, structured, repetitive and purposeful physical activity.Results Exercise in cancer preventionExercise may reduce the risk of developing a primary cancer, Nearly 150 studies have examined the relation between physical activity and cancer prevention at specific cancer sites, studies that meet the inclusion criteria and quality were studied and the results are summarized in [Table - 1] along with possible biological mechanism. Almost all of the studies tested aerobic exercise programs although several combined aerobic and resistance exercise programs.
Despite these limitations however, the studies have consistently demonstrated that exercise has beneficial effects on a wide variety of physical fitness and QOL endpoints in cancer survivors including functional capacity, muscular strength, body weight and composition, flexibility, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, pain, physical well-being, functional well being, depression, anxiety, rigor, anger, mood, self esteem, satisfaction with life and overall quality of life. These studies have resulted in exercise being recommended to cancer survivors by American Cancer Society and also as a therapy for fatigue in cancer survivors. Suggestions to prescribe aerobic exercises for patients in early stage of cancer have been published and to date no one has published guidelines for resistance or flexibility exercise protocol in patient with cancer or recovering from cancer. It is recommended that patients should undergo a symptom-limited graded exercise test, which serves as a basis for exercise prescription. Type or mode of exerciseThe main health related types of exercise are aerobic, resistance and flexibility. The best mode of exercise depends on the person′s goals, health status, and exercise history and cancer experience. Cycling, walking) Resistance training is defined as a method to maintain or improve muscular strength, endurance or power, which is performed against relatively high resistance and few repetitions. Resistance exercise is a potent physiological intervention to increase muscle mass and attenuate muscle wasting.
Radiation and chemotherapy may cause scar formation in joint, which may result in limitation in range of motion and this limitation can be prevented and normal range of motion can be gained by flexibility training.
The best mode of exercise for the patient with cancer on treatment has not been determined because of the lack of research. In a deconditioned population, however, several shorter exercise sessions per day are generally better tolerated. For these patient subjective means of gauging intensity such as rate of perceived exertion (RPE) assessed by BORG Scale can be used. For resistance exercise, 50 -70% of 1- repetition maximum in two or three sets with 8-12 repetitions per set has been shown effective. Lower range of intensity is recommended for older and debilitated survivors and higher range is recommended for apparently healthy survivors. Survivors who are confined to bed or who fatigue with mild exertion may not be candidates for recommended intensity aerobic training but they may benefit from low level of physical activity.
These severely compromised survivors may benefit from range of motion exercises and gentle resistance training within their tolerance levels in early stage of rehabilitation. These survivors in early stages of recovery may later progress to short bouts walking or bicycling several times per day in order to gradually build endurance and allow them to advance to moderate intensity aerobic exercise.
For persons undergoing chemotherapy or radiation treatment the goals of exercise is to maintain function and prevent loss of endurance and strength these survivors may be benefited from routine physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Machine resistance and or free weights are used for resistance exercise of large muscle groups of lower and upper extremities.
Duration of exerciseAmerican College of Sports Medicine recommends that apparently healthy cancer survivors should exercise aerobically between 20-60 minutes, lower range for less fit and old and duration increases according to fitness and age.
Flexibility training is given for two to four repetitions with each stretch holding for about 15-30 seconds.

Things to remember about progression are that every person will adopt differently to exercise stimulus, hence the rate of adaptation dictate the rate of progression.
Treatment for cancer progresses far less predictably, and often non-linearly, because of multiple factors including the treatment schedule, fluctuating blood counts and varying symptom experiences.
2) Progression should be slower and more gradual for the deconditioned patient and those who are experiencing severe side effects of treatment.Contraindications to exerciseMedical screening should be conducted for all survivors prior to their participation in an exercise program.
Survivors with indwelling catheter should avoid resistance exercise of muscle in the area to avoid dislodgement of catheter. Survivors with significant peripheral neuropathies should avoid exercise of the part because of weakness or loss of balance, stationary bicycle may be used in this situation.
Structured exercise protocol might benefit these patients with many or severe symptoms and who struggle to regain their normal function such as those unable to resume work, or who suffer from chronic fatigue and low physical function after the end of treatment. Some cancer survivors can adopt an exercise program independently, many will benefit from referral to physiotherapist who can who can give recommendation of exercise program on type, frequency, duration, and intensity based on survivors age, previous fitness level, type of cancer, stage of treatment, type of therapy, comorbid conditions.
Physiotherapy is essential for survivors with injuries, pain or specific post surgical conditions such as lymphedema or amputation. Providing reassurance that exercise is safe and beneficial modality may improve exercise adherence for inactive cancer survivors and exercise program prescribed should build confidence by slowly increasing the intensity. It should be noted that adherence to exercise program is necessary to obtain improved aerobic fitness. A point to be considered is transfer of local exercise training into activities of daily living for example, resistance exercise may improve muscle strength, endurance and physical functioning but it is known that without integration of functional training improved muscle strength does not result in improved functional task performance for efficient performance of activities of daily living.
Sports are often included in exercise program to facilitate integration into daily life, as it is difficult to become physically active when sedentary. Some of the ways to increase physical activity that can be advised are -using stairs rather than an elevator, always walking to the destination when possible, exercising with friends and family, taking a ten minutes exercise break to stretch and quick walk, walking to visit nearby friends or co workers instead of calling them over phone, planning for active vacations rather than only driving trips, using a stationary bicycle while watching TV, planning the exercise routine to gradually increase the days per week and minutes per session. In the 14 studies 12 indicated that no harm was observed as a result of exercise during or after cancer treatment. Exercise and dietOverweight and obesity have been associated with many types of cancer, the ideal method to limit weight gain or loss weight is to unbalance the energy equation by combination of both diet and increasing physical activity. Diet with this recommendation is recommended which dietitian must individualize as food intake may be compromised by the effects of disease or therapy and to achieve specific goals of individual exercise program. Discussion The study suggests that there is strong evidence for reduced risk of some cancers with increasing physical activity. The strongest evidence exists for colorectal and postmenopausal breast cancer with possible association for prostate, endometrial and lung cancer. The field of oncology will benefit from understanding the importance of physical activity both for primary prevention as well as in helping cancer survivors cope with and recover from treatments, improve the health of long term cancer survivors and possibly even reduce the risk of recurrence and extend survival after a cancer diagnosis.
However, an understanding of the amount, type, and intensity of activity needed has not been fully elucidated for primary prevention and for patients at different stages of disease progression is still lacking.
There is sufficient evidence to promote exercise in cancer survivors following careful assessment and tailoring on exercise prescription based on health status of individual.

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