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26.08.2013

Exercise for abdominal obesity, fit in 60 barre certification - .

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CMR Short Reviews The Concept of CMR Historical background on global cardiometabolic risk, epidemiological aspects of obesity and type 2 diabetes, ABCs of cardiovascular disease risk factors, intra-abdominal adiposity, metabolic syndrome and contribution to cardiometabolic risk. In the 1950s, Jean Vague (1) noted that upper body or android obesity was an important predictor of atherosclerosis, diabetes, gout, and other diseases.
It was originally suggested that exercise alone produced only a marginal (1 to 2 kg) decrease in body weight (25). Although diet and exercise may both lower body weight equally, the composition of the weight lost differs according to the strategy used (Figure 1). With respect to exercise-induced intra-abdominal fat reduction, studies that claim women are resistant to intra-abdominal fat loss may be confounded by gender differences in exercise energy expenditure. Numerous cross-sectional studies have found that for a given amount of total fat mass, Asians have more intra-abdominal fat than Caucasians (55), who in turn have more intra-abdominal fat than African-Americans (56-58).
Abdominal obesity has long been identified as the phenotype that conveys the greatest health risk, independent of total body weight. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults--The Evidence Report. The content of this website is provided for educational and informational purposes only and is not to be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study sought to determine whether combining diet and exercise could reduce the overall incidence of diabetes in 577 men and women with IGT from the city of Da Qing, China (12). Given that abdominal obesity is one of the most prevalent forms of type 2 diabetes, therapeutic approaches should focus on reducing intra-abdominal adipose tissue.
Exercises that Burn Stomach Fat Fast # 2: Elliptical TrainerSome of us no longer have the strong joints we had as teenagers.
Exercises that Burn Stomach Fat Fast # 3: BicyclingBicycling is another great low impact cardio exercise.
The reverse crunch was also ranked above regular crunches as the 5th best exercise for strengthening core muscles. With these exercises, burning stomach fat, shedding love handles, and building a six pack is completely do-able. While the association between abdominal obesity and metabolic risk may be explained by excess fat accumulation in either of two distinct depots within the abdomen, namely intra-abdominal (visceral) fat and abdominal subcutaneous fat, the literature points to intra-abdominal fat as the depot that carries the greatest health risk. Even for a given degree of obesity, individuals who are more active tend to have the lowest levels of intra-abdominal fat compared to their sedentary counterparts (15, 16).
This suggests that intra-abdominal fat may be more sensitive to exercise-induced weight loss than other fat depots.
A calorie-restricted diet has traditionally been the cornerstone of obesity reduction treatment (30). Carefully controlled studies have shown that when reduction of caloric intake is equal to the calories expended through exercise, which creates an equivalent energy deficit, the weight loss is identical between strategies (17, 18). For example, approximately two months of regular, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can substantially reduce intra-abdominal fat (-41 to -45%) without causing weight change in samples of type 2 diabetic patients (45, 46). Exercise without weight loss can reduce both intra-abdominal fat (10-20%) and waist circumference. For example, 16 months of supervised aerobic exercise at the same exercise intensity and of the same duration reduced 5% of the intra-abdominal fat in young men but failed to produce a significant reduction in young women (24). Since men have a greater exercise capacity compared to women (52), matching men and women on exercise intensity and duration alone results in a higher exercise energy expenditure in men and, consequently, a higher expected total and intra-abdominal fat loss. The degree of masculine differentiation of obesities: a factor determining predisposition to diabetes, atherosclerosis, gout, and uric calculous disease. The atherogenic lipoprotein profile associated with obesity and insulin resistance is largely attributable to intra-abdominal fat.
Effects of an energy-restrictive diet with or without exercise on abdominal fat, intermuscular fat, and metabolic risk factors in obese women.
Abdominal fat distribution in pre- and postmenopausal women: The impact of physical activity, age, and menopausal status.
Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower abdominal fat independent of body mass index. Fitness alters the associations of BMI and waist circumference with total and abdominal fat.


Reduction in obesity and related comorbid conditions after diet-induced weight loss or exercise-induced weight loss in men.
Exercise-induced reduction in obesity and insulin resistance in women: a randomized controlled trial. Effects of a single bout of exercise and exercise training on steroid levels in middle-aged type 2 diabetic men: relationship to abdominal adipose tissue distribution and metabolic status. The effect of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on abdominal fat in obese middle-aged women. Effect of exercise on total and intra-abdominal body fat in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.
Effects of the amount of exercise on body weight, body composition, and measures of central obesity: STRRIDE--a randomized controlled study.
Effects of a 16-month randomized controlled exercise trial on body weight and composition in young, overweight men and women: the Midwest Exercise Trial.
Waist circumference and abdominal sagitttal diameter: best simple anthropometric indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women. One year of caloric restriction in humans: feasibility and effects on body composition and abdominal adipose tissue.
Effects of hypocaloric diet and exercise training on inflammation and adipocyte lipolysis in obese postmenopausal women. Effect of calorie restriction with or without exercise on insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, fat cell size, and ectopic lipid in overweight subjects.
Effect of calorie restriction with or without exercise on body composition and fat distribution.
Effects of energy restriction and exercise on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in women as measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates metabolic risk independent of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat in men.
Absence of exercise-induced variations in adiponectin levels despite decreased abdominal adiposity and improved insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic men.
Preferential loss of visceral fat following aerobic exercise, measured by magnetic resonance imaging.
Exercise without weight loss is an effective strategy for obesity reduction in obese individuals with and without Type 2 diabetes.
The effects of long-term, moderate intensity, intermittent exercise on aerobic capacity, body composition, blood lipids, insulin and glucose in overweight females.
Race, visceral adipose tissue, plasma lipids, and lipoprotein lipase activity in men and women: the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) family study. In addition to its ties to abdominal obesity, the metabolic syndrome has also been linked to blood lipid disorders, an inflammatory and pro-thrombotic state, hypertension, and insulin resistance.
During the 4 year follow-up, diabetes incidence dropped by 58% and 31% for the lifestyle and metformin groups respectively, as compared to the placebo (Figure 2).
Subjects were randomized to a control group or to one of three lifestyle intervention groups (diet only, exercise only, or diet plus exercise). For example, rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) blocker, has been shown to reduce food intake in both rodents and humans (15, 16).
Contribution of visceral obesity to the deterioration of the metabolic risk profile in men with impaired glucose tolerance.
Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance.
XENical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects (XENDOS) study: a randomized study of orlistat as an adjunct to lifestyle changes for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. Effects of pioglitazone versus diet and exercise on metabolic health and fat distribution in upper body obesity. Next is strengthening abdominal muscles so you have something to show once the fat is shed.
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In addition, numerous intervention studies have demonstrated that exercise training can reduce intra-abdominal fat through weight loss (17-24).


The literature suggests, however, that exercise can produce a wide array of intra-abdominal fat changes, from a minor reduction of approximately 5% (21) up to a 50% reduction (20).
This is supported by the degree of weight loss reported among diet versus exercise weight loss studies (5 to 18 kg versus 1 to 8 kg reduction, respectively). Even non-obese premenopausal women experience a significant reduction in intra-abdominal fat (-25%) after 6 months of aerobic exercise despite no significant change in weight (47).
However, exercise-induced weight loss leads to greater reductions in both intra-abdominal fat (30%) and waist circumference. Further evidence from a trial using either diet or diet with exercise suggests a similar pattern (37).
They found that only the diet and exercise group had a reduction of waist circumference, body fat percentage, and intra-abdominal adipose tissue surface as calculated by computed tomography at the L4-L5 level.
The limited evidence available suggests that Caucasians and African Americans do not differ in terms of intra-abdominal fat loss in response to a 20 week exercise intervention (51). For a given amount of weight loss, exercise can induce a greater relative reduction in intra-abdominal fat and better maintain muscle mass. As depicted in Figure 1, abdominally obese individuals should be encouraged to increase their daily energy expenditure in order to decrease intra-abdominal adipose tissue and improve their plasma lipoprotein-lipid profile and indices of plasma glucose-insulin homeostasis.
Similar improvements in insulin resistance markers and other cardiometabolic risk variables were observed in both groups, suggesting that diet and exercise improve insulin sensitivity by mobilizing intra-abdominal adipose tissue. The bicycle exercise ranked as #1 because it requires abdominal stabilization, body rotation, and more abdominal muscle activity. For a given amount of weight loss, exercise preserves muscle mass and causes greater reductions in total and intra-abdominal fat compared to diet-induced weight loss.
In general, the highest levels of exercise cause the highest energy deficit, which leads to greater weight loss and a greater reduction in intra-abdominal fat. In order for that obese man to produce the same energy deficit and expend 2,000 kcal, he would require approximately 3 hours of daily, moderate-intensity exercise (17). Data from the National Weight Control Registry suggests that individuals who are most successful at attaining and maintaining significant weight loss are likely to use a combination of diet and exercise to achieve their goal (42).
Lastly, of key importance is the notion that total body weight needs not change for intra-abdominal fat to decrease significantly. Pharmacological compounds aimed at reducing intra-abdominal fat deposition need to be developed and used in conjunction with lifestyle modification therapies to reduce the risk and complications of type 2 diabetes.  Data on the pharmacological treatment of intra-abdominal obesity is needed.
The primary findings suggest that in obese Caucasian men and women, as well as in individuals with type 2 diabetes, exercise training can significantly reduce total and abdominal obesity even with little or no change in body weight.
From a clinical perspective, exercise-induced weight loss therefore causes the greatest reduction in intra-abdominal fat and the greatest improvements in metabolic status. The waist circumference tape may therefore be a more reliable marker of obesity treatment success than the bathroom scale.
The combination of diet and exercise is therefore the ideal strategy for losing weight and reducing intra-abdominal fat.
Furthermore, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue decreased in the exercise without weight loss group.
The contribution of various lifestyle and therapeutic interventions to reducing body weight, abdominal fat in particular, and preventing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is examined below. Illustrating a dose-response relationship between exercise dose, weight loss, and intra-abdominal fat loss, Irwin et al.
In that study, a sample of 522 middle-aged men and women, who were all overweight with IGT, were randomly assigned to an intervention group designed to lower total intake of fat (especially saturated fats) to less than 30% of energy consumed, increase intake of dietary fibre, and ensure participants took part in moderate exercise for at least 30 minutes per day.
Cumulative diabetes incidence was 11% and 23% for the intervention and control groups, respectively. This paves the way to larger lifestyle intervention trials to examine whether increasing energy expenditure without necessarily decreasing energy intake can prevent type 2 diabetes among high-risk abdominally obese, dyslipidemic individuals.




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Comments to “Exercise for abdominal obesity”

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  3. Inda_Club:
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  4. FK_BAKI:
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