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14.11.2013

Crossfit injury rates study, video on stretching exercises - Reviews

Author: admin
Injury rates provide one good measure of understanding how likely you are to incur an injury when taking part in a sporting pastime. Other common measures of how likely you are to incur an injury when taking part in a sporting pastime are injury incidence and injury prevalence. All physical activity involves a certain risk of injury, whether acute (traumatic) or chronic (overuse). Injury rates are not reported in all common participative sports so it is hard to give a comprehensive picture.
Turning to the point of this article, the rate of injury during various strength sports, including strongman, powerlifting, Olympic weightlifting, bodybuilding and other types of competitive strength-related activities is summarized in the table below and set out in the following studies. If you are curious about the exact parameters of each of these studies, you can read brief summaries in the following section.
Winwood (2014) investigated the incidence of injury and their locations during strongman training and competition. Siewe (2014) assessed the risk of injury during training for competitive bodybuilding by collecting questionnaires from 71 competitive and elite bodybuilders.
Siewe (2011) assessed injury incidence in 245 competitive and elite powerlifters from 97 incorporated powerlifting clubs by way of a questionnaire. Eberhardt (2007) assessed the risk of injury during training for recreational (non-competitive) bodybuilding. Keogh (2006) assessed injury incidence in 82 male and 19 female competitive open and masters powerlifters over a 1-year period. Raske and Norlin (2002) investigated the incidence and prevalence of injuries among both elite Olympic weightlifters and powerlifters in both 1995 and in 2000. Calhoon (1999) assessed the incidence and nature of injury among elite US male weightlifters training at United States Olympic Training Centers over a 6-year period.
Haykowsky (1999) assessed the incidence and nature of injury among 11 elite blind powerlifters (9 males and 2 females). Brown (1983) assessed the risk of injury in adolescent powerlifters by way of a questionnaire in 71 contestants entered in the 1981 Michigan Teenage Powerlifting Championship.
Hak (2013) assessed the injury rates and profiles of subjects participating in a popular high-intensity power-training program using resistance-training exercises (CrossFit), with an online questionnaire. From the above studies, it should be fairly clear that the risk of injury (whether acute or chronic) is not higher when training for strength sports than when performing endurance-type training such as running or triathlon.
We can see that the most commonly-occurring injury locations for strength athletes are the low back and shoulder.
For the general population, we might expect training injury rates to be lower if bodybuilding-style methods were adopted, in comparison to powerlifting-, strongman- or Olympic weightlifting-style training methods.
For the athletic population, it is an interesting question to consider whether incorporating some elements of bodybuilding practices would lead to a reduction in injury rates during training. Training for strength sports is associated with similar or lower rates of injury than training for endurance sports such as long-distance running and triathlon. A bodybuilding style of resistance-training seems to lead to a lower injury rate than other types of resistance-training. Whether it is worth considering deliberately using bodybuilding-style training in athletic programs in order to reduce training injury rates seems premature until research clarifies its effect on performance and competition injury risk. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research recently accepted a study titled “The Nature and Prevalence of Injury During CrossFit Training.” The authors, Mr.
This simple statistical difference between the injury rate and injury prevalence within a sample group has gone over the heads of many, including Discovery News host Trace Dominguez, Chiropractor Lucas A. Compared to Elite Olympic weightlifters, CrossFit athletes have higher % of shoulder injuries. Therefore, CrossFit’s shoulder injury incidence is high, and this is due to higher repetitions, intensity, and load.


Asking why CrossFit has a higher rate of shoulder injuries than weightlifting is kind of like asking why weightlifters have more knee injuries than specialists in the gymnastics rings. Injury incidence is the percentage of the population who experience an injury over a certain time period. Studies were only included in this review where an injury rate per 1,000 hours of training was calculated and presented. They found that 43.3% of powerlifters complained of injury-related problems during workouts. They found that the rate of injury was 1.0 injuries per 1,000 hours but they did not define injury as physical damage leading to time-loss.
They defined injury as any physical damage leading to a missed or modified training session or competition.
Across both sports and across both time periods, the subjects incurred 2.6 injuries per 1,000 hours of training.
The researchers found that the rate of injury was 3.3 injuries per 1,000 hours of weightlifting exposure. They reported that the rate of injury was 1.1 injuries per 1,000 hours of training and they noted that the most commonly-occurring injury locations were equally the low back and shoulders. They reported that the rate of injury was 3.7 injuries per 1,000 hours of training and they noted that the most commonly-occurring injury location was the low back. The researchers collected 132 responses of whom 97 individuals (73.5%) reported sustaining an injury during this type of training. Thus, strength sports are certainly no more injurious than those endurance activities that have been investigated widely.
It is tempting to consider that the Olympic weightlifters and strongman athletes are more prone to low back injury and that the powerlifters and bodybuilders are more prone to shoulder injury but this conclusion seems a little premature based on the available literature. However, this would need to be confirmed in populations of non-athletes, preferably by monitoring multiple groups to avoid the effects of study artefacts.
Of course, the major two unknowns would be the effect on performance and the impact on injury rates during competition.
When selecting activities for health, people can be advised that strength sports are not more likely to cause injury than endurance sports. When selecting activities for health, this method of training may lead to a superior risk-reward ratio than strongman, powerlifting, or Olympic weightlifting styles of training. The full text of the study has already surfaced here, and there are some serious problems with it. A dedicated CrossFitter who goes for five one-hour sessions per week is training 260 hours per year. The CHAMP paper did nothing more than speculate about the risk of performing CrossFit, provide no data to support its claim and make a number of fundamental errors in describing the CrossFit program.
This is an entire sentence that has been structured to causally link a certain prevalence of injury to CrossFit training. Non-probabilistic sampling, such as that used in this study, cannot be used to make inferences about a population. Injury was defined as any physical problem that caused a missed or modified training session or competition. The injury rate was 4.4 injuries per 1,000 hours of training and the most commonly-injured body regions were the shoulder (36%), low back (24%), elbow (11%), and knee (9%). In 1995, the most commonly-occurring injury location was the low back but in 2000, the most commonly-occurring injury location was the shoulder. They noted that the most commonly-occurring injury locations were the back (primarily low back), knees, and shoulders. Since 98 powerlifting injuries occurred during this time, the rate of injury was 0.85 injuries per 1,000 hours training.


Several individuals reported sustaining more than one type of injury and a total of 186 injuries were reported, of which 9 needed surgery. Therefore, is possible that differences between study injury rates during training could have arisen from study artefacts (i.e. In their study, Siewe (2014) proposed that bodybuilding tends to use slower and more controlled movements, as well as smaller loads.
They note that the bulk of these injuries were to the shoulder and low back, with the number of shoulder injuries at 25.8% of total injury complaints. Any opinion based on the expectation that injury profiles between these very different activities should be similar, is illogical. Note that the NSCA has already claimed they lack sufficient information to form an opinion on this study. The desperation in some of the CrossFit community in the denial that you can get hurt when participating is crazy. Where the researchers used the information from the sample to make generalizations about all CrossFitters (the population) and compare those generalizations to other sports is an inherent fallacy in statistics. On the other hand, for non-elite amateur athletes and individuals who make use of participative sport for the purposes of exercise, injury rate (as well as enjoyment) should be an important factor in deciding which type of sport to take part in.
The researchers found that 82% of the subjects reported at least one injury over the year in question and the injury rate was 5.5 injuries per 1,000 hours of training. The researchers concluded that injury rate is low compared to other weightlifting disciplines such as powerlifting, Olympic weightlifting or strongman. The researchers observed that the Olympic weightlifters tended to experience low back and knee injuries, while the powerlifters were more prone to shoulder injuries. In their review, Fisher (2014) picked up on similar ideas and also suggested that these training variables might be important modifying factors for injury.
These inferences can only be made as a result of probabilistic sampling, in which all CrossFitters have an equal chance of being selected for the study. Injury rates are quite useful when the researchers only have access to small samples of subjects (such as is often the case in sporting pastimes) but where each subject records their training hours.
On the other hand, injury prevalence is the percentage of the population who are currently injured at any given time. In terms of region of injury, the most common locations were: low back (24%), shoulder (21%), bicep (11%), and knee (11%).
Interestingly, the researchers found that the use of weight belts led to greater risk of injury at the low back. Nevertheless, if we are to draw any conclusion about the relative risks associated with injury rate in strength sports, it is that bodybuilding training is less injurious than training for other strength sports. Additionally, it is possible that there are differences in the risk of injury associated with training using free-weights versus training using machines.
Since these researchers did not employ probabilistic sampling, they can only use statistics to describe their sample, not to make inferences about all the injuries of all CrossFitters. Depending on the duration of the injury and the measurement period of injury incidence, injury prevalence can be smaller, similar to, or larger than injury incidence. It seems that many of the general population regard such sports as fairly “safe” options to participate in, while strength sports are typically considered more likely to cause injury. The researchers observed that strongman athletes were 1.9 times more likely to sustain an injury when using strongman implements than when using traditional resistance-training methods. Injury incidence and injury prevalence are most useful when the samples of the population being studied are reasonably large.



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