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02.06.2013

Building neck muscles horse, wwe david otunga finisher - For You

Author: admin
To address the outline of the horse from the front is like painting a loaf of dough brown to make it baked. The horse is very dependent on being able to adjust the head to focus his eye-sight at different depths. When the horse is made to hold his head well behind the vertical in deep or rollkur, this means that he, at the most, sees the ground immediately before his feet, in focus. The spinal column of the neck does not follow the contour of the neck as seen from the outside. Generally you can say that a horse showing a lot of underneck has a lower set base of the neck, spine-wise. In this way the shape of the neck is a good indication of how well the horse uses his back. If you want to teach a horse to lift the base of the neck, straighten the vertebral column, lift the back and so on, the easiest and most productive way to do this is to ride the horse with a tendency for forward-down-out movement of the head and neck originating in stepping actively under with the hindlegs.
In 2000, Dr Vet Horst Weiler concluded his studies on illnesses in and around the attachments of tendons and ligaments in horses.
In his studies, he found that 80% of horses used for dressage and jumping had injuries around the attachment of the nuchal cord on the head. When stretched forward-down-out, the nuchal ligament is not so stretched out, but the muscles that raise the withers are elongated. In a lot of literature and research written on "Long & Low", horsemen and vets try to explain how the lowering of the head will put traction on the nuchial ligament to raise the withers and the back. The really alarming part of Dr Weiler's study is that the absolute majority of horses that were used for the study had not been clinically diagnosed as having problems at the poll specifically.
This kind of repeated injury does usually not show up as lameness or pain upon palpation, since few people palpate (press with the fingers) the horse at the poll. In a horse trained to pull his withers forward to raise the back or to whatever, really, you have a constant traction and subsequent locking of the lumbar back. If you work to do the same thing, but use the unencumbered muscle force created behind (from engagement of the hindlegs and collection), you will get an intermediate, pulsating intermittent lift with every step of the hindlegs.
The neck is certainly used, but only to pull at the withers and raise the neck, a more appropriate burden for this part of the body. The way we train, is usually the way in which we perform the skill later - If the horse learns to do shoulder-in or passage with an extended lumbar back, he most probably will, during the test, too. And also, when a horse jumps and arches the most he can, his neck is always arched out and the nose is always in front of the vertical. And when it comes to stretching, advances are much greater in human therapy than in that of horses.
A muscle shortens or relaxes to put tension on or let go of the bones of the horse as it moves with its legs. If the muscle is contracted and stretched at the same time, ballistic stretching, the zones will not glide apart.
The neck muscles are stretched in their tendons and tendinous zones and thus slackened and rendered useless in supporting the spine and head. When a horse relaxes into a full stretch, you'd want it to stretch the neck as long and straight as possible using gravity. If instead you'd force the horse to curl his neck up, the S-curve is exaggerated and the neck is shortened. The nuchal ligament (PINK) along the top of the neck is like a rubberband tendon from poll to withers (and continuing along the top of the spine over the back). Now, the head hangs from the first vertebra of the neck like a chandelier from a hook in the ceiling. So to pull the nose of the horse back behind the vertical, we need to fight both gravity and muscle tonus. When a horse pulls his head back by virtue of the small muscles of the underneck and jowl, this is the force he needs to employ. This is what happens in a horse that is 45 degrees behind the vertical and light in the hands. If the horse does not hold his head back and up himself, with the muscles of the underneck, that means that the rider must pull the head back with the reins. When a horse carries his own head, and the weight in the reins is the weight of the rein itself, holding the hands close together and thumbs up is a breeze.
Also, the friction between the vertebrae facing each other at such odd angles is greater, and with the pressure of the nuchal ligament and the underline muscles compacting the neck, the spine is subject to wear and tear.
The splenius is a triangular muscle that supports a large part of the vertebral column from the withers. The muscle is stretched out across the angled vertebrae and made to work in utmost extension instead of supporting the vertebral column from above.
The smaller muscles of the poll and atlas vertebra are also fully extended and work under stress. In correct training, the muscles in front of the withers become firm and strong, and grow in size. A rolled up neck shortens the nuchal ligament, and when the neck is curled the horse can hang his head and neck from the ligament. The splenius muscle mediates between the angle of the head, traction of the nuchal ligamentforward reach of the forelimb and the position of the neck bones. Correct work, or incorrect ditto, reveals itself in the shape of the neck when the horse when he is left to his own devices.
Seen from the side, the topline of the neck should be rounded, or at least straight, not concave. The lack of muscling along the topline can easily be masked by letting the horse gain weight. Imagined from a cross section point of view, the part of the neck situated above the spinal column should have large muscle mass, especially close to the withers.
The parotid glands incase the parotidoauricular muscle which is attached at the frontal base of the ear.
The back and the neck are like a complex chain where tensions in one end spreads through the spinal column all the way to the other end.


To hold the head back, either the horse has to lean on the riders hands, or he has to pull the head back himself. If your horse is consistently relaxed and able and willing to travel like this, it's time to shorten your reins a bit, add more leg to keep the energy going, and ask him to raise up.
A horse that looks for something at the horizon lifts the nose to almost horizontal level, and looks along the back of his nose. The trouble is that the horse cannot see forward, and therefore has trouble thinking forward. The neck is very agile and most horses can bite their own chest, flank or rump if they make an effort.
It does not mean that the young horse should be ridden with his nose at the ground grubbing like a hog. Horses used for hacking, trotters, ponies, coldbloods, had these injuries much less or not at all. The horse will not need to counteract anything except the weight of the viscera and the rider. The extent to which this overlapping or gliding apart can take place decides the range of movement for the muscle. During ridden propulsion the back of the horse is under load both from the pushing hindquarters and the human load. This is to let the muscles "jog" at low tension to transport away metabolic by-products that would otherwise cause pain and resistance.
The added bonus for the horse is that he does not need to carry you on his back while learning this, and the bonus for you is that you can see what the horse does.
Since the weight of the head and neck stretches the neck towards the ground, all the muscles of the neck and jowl can relax and acid build-up can rinse away. Now, put in perspective that these muscles are naturally only used for swallowing, neighing and ripping of grass at pasture.
One often observes it in retrained horses that start to work the right way - one change is that their mouths soften and become wet. If the reins attach to a snaffle bit in the horse's mouth, the two joined mouth pieces of the bit will fold around the lower jaw of the horse and squeeze it like a nutcracker.Try putting a snaffle bit around your lower arm and pull on the rings with the same force you pulled on the bag with - 25 lb. Since there are only 7 cervical vertebrae the angles between the vertebral bodies in this part of the neck are as far away from their natural position as possible. When the horse is asked to work with his neck vertebrae misaligned, as in holding the poll low and the 2nd-3rd vertebrae the highest point, the muscle has to partially stretch and partially shorten.
If you hold the hand around the underside it should be soft and sloppy and reasonably thin even down at the base of the neck. A cross section of the neck at the 5th or 6th vertebra should look more like an old-fashioned key hole than a pear. The cause of the over developement of this muscle, and thus the over compression of the glands, is excess rearward traction and compression from the rider. He does so by shortening the Scalenus Medius going between the top of the jaw to the middle of the neck and the Sterno-mandibularis that goes from the lower edge of the jaw to the breast bone. The hyoid apparatus connects the tongue at the throat, and a pull on this muscle draws the tongue back and stiffens the neck at the jowl. I agree with my position, I get stuck in that horrible huntseat position and trying to ride dressage in an AP saddle can be difficult haha! When a horse focuses on something close, he changes the angle to approach the vertical, and looks at it straight out in front. The vertebrae in the neck do not have the spinous processes that do those of the chest and back. It is not the nuchal ligament, but the muscles that should put traction on the withers and raise the thoracial spines!
It thus goes unnoticed, or emerges as unwillingness, head shaking, stiffness, mis-behaviour, or the like, and is never treated as what it is, the training is never re-evaluated and the horse just learns to deal with it. Many of these horses thus show stacatto breathing and a tense drawn-up belly, because the effect has to be strongly counteracted by the abdominals. The massive muscles of the pelvis, croup and thighs are much more effective in this quite heavy task. What gets stretched out and elongated, sometimes permanently, are the tendons at the ends of the muscle, and the tendinous non-stretchy zones of the muscle, that are supposed to give the muscle tonus. The back muscles are then ballistically stretched with a load on top, and extra intermittent snatches at each step. It is amazing how little resistance one meets in a horse after he has learned that he will always be allowed to stretch out and RELAX after each effort. After this has been understood by the horse, it can be done from the saddle, to help the horse feel how he can relax the back and neck and still carry the weight of the rider. They should be relaxed and idle in correct dressage training, ot they WILL shorten the neck. Even before a show, you could see him stretching his horses in long and low in the snaffle. The gross bending of the top of the vertebral column results in an overstretching of the splenius musculature of the neck. Also the insertion at the skull and the origo at the withers line up across the vertebral column and so the muscle narrows and as it stretches between the withers and the poll the muscle glides down on the side of the neck, reinforcing the break in alignment at the 3rd vertebra. These muscles are not very strong, however, since they have been so stretched out in their work. Dressage horses that are not subjected to overbending and strong backward traction on the reins do not develop the "swollen" muscle and protruding glands.
The top of the neck of the horse consists of many small muscles, attaching to the skull and the 1st and 2nd vertebrae.
As it hangs there by it's own weight the nose of the horse is slightly in front of the perpendicular. He seems to have more muscle along his crest towards the poll rather than down by the withers.
The influence of the rest of the horse on the quarters is literally non-existent, unless the horse is working correctly behind to start with.


The muscles from withers to poll take over, and the underneck stabilises and stops the bulging bottom from protruding too much. The vertebral column of the neck should rather straighten than curve - the telescoping neck. Many highly trained horses take forever to warm up, because one has to work out all the small resistances that the horse has come up with in self-defence, to stop pain or break-down. In the aspect of stretching muscles for athletic improvement, humans, horses, cats and dogs are the same.The sport horse is a large muscular animal with enormous athletic potential.
If a joint is about to dislocate, areaction such as this from a muscle controlling the joint can save the life of the whole animal.
The range of movement of the bones may increase, but the gymnastic range of the muscle lessens.
The neck muscles are under load from having to hold the head back and up instead of relaxing it towards the ground, and is stretched loaded. It is now easier for the horse to go back to lifting the base of the neck correctly, and arching out of the withers, compared to if fatigue and acid build-up had impaired the muscle sling, and let the horse sag the base of the neck down to curl behind the bit.
These muscles are all that can support the weight of the neck, since the longer muscles of the neck (those from withers to poll) have been relaxed through softening the poll. In horses with big withers and a low set neck, this is of course harder to accomplish, and takes longer time. The grove must not be filled out with underline muscles, nor pushed out by the bulging of the spinal column.
Any puffy swelling behind the rim of the jaw speaks of squeezed spit glands because of overflexion at the top of the neck. If a horse is trained to stretch into the bridle, this space will enlarge, because the topline will lift the atlas slightly with increasing tonus.
The muscles that go from the 1st and 2nd vertebrae to the occipital protuberance of the skull (the very top of the head) have relaxed, but still have their natural tonus. If the pulling back of the jaw shall not result in the horse opening his mouth, the horse needs to tense the Masseter (chewing muscle) or have his mouth shut by an snug noseband, such as the crank.
It can also be a way of robbing the horse of his pride, depending upon the extent to which it is done.
If the rider were to keep the horse curled in, the odds are that the horse would not clear the fence because he cannot see it and because it restricts his freedom of movement. The sheering action on the ligament probably happens as the riders impose extreme poll flexion, curl their horses noses into the chest, and work them there repeatedly, for lengthy periods of time, or pull hard while doing so. An unfit, tense muscle is better than a dislocated joint or torn muscle when it comes to saving ones life by outrunning a predator.
The nose of the horse is lighter than the jaw because of the sinuses, and the relaxed tonus of the numerous muscles of the poll (to help poke the nose) all help keeping the nose slightly if front of the vertical, in this state of total relaxation. But the fact remains that the horse will use his tongue as an eggbeater in side his mouth, to try to escape the pain and cramp caused by the bit and the sternohyoid. And again you realise that the data used for this kind of research is not fine traditional dressage, as has been handed down to us by the masters, but mainstream competitive riding with a horse behind the vertical leaning on the rider's hands. But working in this position, where the muscles and ligaments between the vertebrae are stretched to their limit, dulls the tone of these muscles and elongates the ligaments, ridding the neck of all natural tone. These muscles are small and sensitive and there's a reason why your chiropractic has you lying down when he does the loosening.
Many top horses trained deep are fitted with crank nosebands plus gel-pads to stop the crank from chafing.
Many times this problem is simply due to the horse being ridden behind the vertical, pulled in tight with force. Without that, one can bend and twist, stretch and loosen every part of the horse, and the quality of movement will still not improve. The bottom curve of the vertebral column lifts and straightens, the top part stays about the same, and between the very top vertebra and the skull, full relaxation of the muscles lets the head fall into place. Rhomboideus may not be compared to the function of the same muscle in the horse, but the basic general function of muscle tissue is the same. In this state the muscle never relaxes to neutral, and thus loses it's ability to contract powerfully.
It is certainly true that any horse put in such a position will put about 5 pounds of tension into each rein. When the neck is curled up, the air pipe is pressed against the spine at the base of the neck, and bent at the top of the neck. Muscles that could hold the head back are attached at the jaw and the hyoid apparatus in the throat and go to the underside of the spine and the breast bone. Even in a horse with less than ideal conformation in this aspect, correct training in a longer and lower arched outline will "lift" the atlas and improve conformation. The muscles around and in front of the withers help lifting the base of the neck, while they in their turn are aided by an active back. To begin with, there's little, but the stronger and more well trained the horse gets, the better the effect.
A horse with tense, shortened muscles, muscular imbalance, or even worse, pain or injury cannot do his best in training or testing. The topline muscles of the neck work at their medium length, and the muscles at the underside are disengaged. Since the horse has to contract his underneck muscles in this work, and since the attention goes backwards to the chest or between the knees, these horses have to be chased forward for them to become active behind. The head falls relaxed from the 1st vertebra and needs no fixing by muscles, but simply hangs by it's own weight.



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